What is a radical neck dissection? when is it done?

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What is a radical neck dissection? The surgeon removes a block of tissue from the collarbone to the jaw and from the front to the back of the neck. The large muscle on the side of the neck that is used for rotating, flexing or extending the neck is also taken out, along with the major vein on the side of the neck. Sometimes, a less drastic operation, called a supraomohyoid neck dissection is done. This takes out only the lymph nodes, the tissue surrounding the nodes and a muscle at the front of the neck. Another technique, called a functional neck dissection, saves the muscles of the neck, taking out only the lymph nodes and tissues surrounding them.
What kind of incision is made with a radical neck dissection? The incision depends upon what the surgery is for. It can run from below the ear to the collarbone. Everything in the front of the neck on one side or on both sides may be removed. This may include the lymph nodes, blood vessels, nerves, and the salivary gland under the jawbone.

When do i need my first pap test?

When should the first Pap test be done? 

The recommendation of the National Institute of Health is that all women who have had sexual intercourse should begin a regular screening program for cervical cancer.

Should older women continue to have Pap smears? 

The National Cancer Institute's Conference panel noted that if two negative Pap smears are obtained after the age of 60, further smears do not appear to be needed. Some doctors recommend Pap tests regularly up to the age of 65 and every three to five years beyond 65.

How is the Pap test done? 

Living cells are collected from the vaginal fluid by gently scraping the surface of the cervix. These cells are preserved with fixative solution, stained, and put on a microscope slide to be read by a pathologist. The test is done by a gynecologist or another physician in his office, or it can be done at a clinic.

Is it necessary to have a Pap test every year? 

The American Cancer Society offers the following guidelines for women without symptoms:

• Women between the ages of 20 and 40 should have a pelvic exam every 3 years and a Pap test at least every 3 years after two initial negative tests 1 year apart. These guidelines are also for women under 20 if sexually active.

• Women 40 and over should have a pelvic exam every year and a Pap test at least every 3 years after two initial negative tests 1 year apart.

Who is at greater risk of developing cervical cancer? 

At greater risk of developing cervical cancer are women who have had sex at an early age, have had sex with many partners, and have had more than five pregnancies.

Is cancer of the cervix easy to detect? 

Yes. Cancer of the cervix is detected through a Pap smear, which is a very simple examination. Cancer of the cervix is virtually 100 percent curable in its earliest stages.

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