Showing posts from July, 2020

What is a radical neck dissection? when is it done?

What is a radical neck dissection? The surgeon removes a block of tissue from the collarbone to the jaw and from the front to the back of the neck. The large muscle on the side of the neck that is used for rotating, flexing or extending the neck is also taken out, along with the major vein on the side of the neck. Sometimes, a less drastic operation, called a supraomohyoid neck dissection is done. This takes out only the lymph nodes, the tissue surrounding the nodes and a muscle at the front of the neck. Another technique, called a functional neck dissection, saves the muscles of the neck, taking out only the lymph nodes and tissues surrounding them.
What kind of incision is made with a radical neck dissection? The incision depends upon what the surgery is for. It can run from below the ear to the collarbone. Everything in the front of the neck on one side or on both sides may be removed. This may include the lymph nodes, blood vessels, nerves, and the salivary gland under the jawbone.

Are any new techniques being used in the treatment of eye cancer?

Eye cancer is comparatively rare, but is extremely dangerous. People of all ages can contract it, even toddlers and babies. The cancer (tumor) can develop in any area of the attention . Initially, sufferers have little or no complaints and thus usually discover eye cancer very late.

Is cancer of the eye a common tumor? No. Cancer of the eye is quite rare. The most common form of eye cancer in adults is intraocular melanoma, which is highly curable and preservation of vision is possible in some tumors which are small and local to the eye.
Do children get eye cancer? Yes, there is a type of eye cancer, called retinoblastoma which affects children.

What is eye cancer and the way does one recognize it? Adults most ordinarily develop choroidal melanoma. Retinoblastoma is especially observed in children. Lid tumors also occur.

Choroidal melanoma is that the commonest sort of eye cancer. during this form, a clear tumor forms on the choroid. Those suffering from choroidal melanoma complain of vi…

Where does most tongue cancer occur: Symptoms, Red or white patches and Treatment

Who is at high risk to get cancer of the tongue?Cancer of the tongue appears mostly in men who are over 40 although the proportion of women with tongue cancer is increasing, probably because of increased alcohol and tobacco use.

Where does most tongue cancer occur? Most cancer of the tongue is situated at the tip or along the side of the tongue. It can usually be discovered early.
What are the symptoms of tongue cancer? You might see deep red patches. Sometimes there are white patches. Sometimes the deep red patches turn bluish white. This is called leukoplakia, which represents an overgrowth of cells. There may be only a few spots or they may be on the whole tongue. Sometimes they will not hurt. They may be irritating and uncomfortable. The greatest danger of these patches is that if they are not treated, some of the area might turn into cancer. Some people complain of pain, which they usually think is a sore throat. It gets worse when they talk and swallow. Sometimes the pain goes to …

Floor of the mouth cancer: Diagnosis, Metastasize, Treatments and Signs

How is cancer of the floor of the mouth diagnosed? The doctor will look at and feel the tumor. He will take xrays and do a biopsy to confirm the diagnosis.

Does cancer of the floor of the mouth metastasize? Yes. This is one of the oral cancers which metastasizes to the lymph nodes in the neck in a good number of patients.
What treatment is used for cancer of the floor of the mouth? In early stage cancers, the treatment is usually radiation or surgery. Cancers that are more advanced are usually treated with surgery followed by radiation and sometimes chemotherapy.

How the disease progresses cannot be predicted. This depends, among other things, on how fast and aggressively the cancer grows and how big it is. Small, localized tumors can either be operated on or irradiated by doctors. With more advanced cancer, the operation is often supplemented with radiation or radiation chemotherapy. The treatment also depends on the personal needs and the physical condition of the person concerned.


Cheek Cancer Metastasize: Symptoms, Risky Peoples, Diagnosis and Treatment

Who is at high risk for cancer of the cheek? Cancer of the inside of the cheek (sometimes referred to by doctors as buccal mucosa) occurs more often in males over the age of 55. It is believed that persons who chew tobacco and betel nuts or who bite their cheeks are at a higher risk of getting cancer of the cheek.
What are the symptoms? The symptoms include a sore inside the cheek which does not heal, bloody saliva, and white patches inside the cheek. There is usually no pain.

Does cancer of the cheek metastasize? Cancer of the cheek is usually slow growing. It also has a relatively low rate of metastasis.

How is cancer of the cheek diagnosed? It is diagnosed by direct inspection and feeling by the doctor. Final diagnosis is by biopsy.

How is cancer of the cheek treated? Early stages ofcancer ofthe cheek are treated with radiation or by surgery. Advanced cancer of the cheek is treated by surgery, followed by radiation and sometimes chemotherapy.

Oral(Mouth) Cancer: Symptoms, Bleeding, Treatment and Diagnose

What kinds of cancers are found in the mouth? The cancers of the mouth (oral cavity) include the lip, tongue, floor of the mouth, cheeks (buccal mucosa), and gums (gingivae).

Who is at high risk to get cancer of the mouth? This cancer is predominantly found in men between the ages of 60 and 70. People who are heavy smokers (more than a pack a day), drink alcohol heavily, are over 45, and have a family history of this kind of cancer are at a higher risk to develop cancers of the oral cavity, the mouth, and the throat.
Is cancer of the mouth easy to detect? Yes, it is usually discovered early, since it can be seen easily. White patches (leukoplakia), velvety red spots (erythroplasia), or dark patches are symptoms which should be seen by a doctor, who will do a biopsy of them. Many cancers of the mouth are first discovered by dentists.

What are the symptoms of oral cancer? The warning signs of oral cancer are as follows:
• A lump in the cheek that can be felt with the tongue
• Sore spot or …

How is cancer of the nose and sinuses treated? Synptoms and Operation

What are the parts of the nose? The nose is made up of connective tissue (cartilage) and bone. It contains two cavities, which are separated in the middle by a septum. The nose serves as the organ of smell and is the airway for breathing. It filters, warms, and moistens the air which is breathed in.

What are the sinuses? The sinuses are air spaces within the bones of the face and the skull. They connect through small openings (ostia) into the air passages in the nose. The soft, moist mucous lining which coats the inside of the nose extends into the sinuses. There are four types of sinus: frontal (within the bone just above and behind the eyebrows), maxillary (in the bones of the cheeks beneath the eyes), ethmoid (near the side of the nose and inner part of the eyes and going back into the skull), and sphenoid (in the skull above the level of the nose).
Is cancer of the sinuses common? No. Cancer of the sinuses is very rare. Most often it is the maxillary sinus that is involved in the di…

What is cancer of the oropharynx : Diagnosed , Symptoms and Treatment

What is cancer of the oropharynx? Cancer of the region of the oropharynx includes the soft palate, tonsil, walls of the pharynx, and back third of the tongue. The most common site for this cancer is on the tonsil.

Oropharyngeal epithelial cell carcinoma refers to cancer of the tonsils, the bottom and posterior third of the tongue, the taste bud , and therefore the posterior and lateral pharynx. epithelial cell carcinoma comprises quite 95% of oropharyngeal carcinoma. Tobacco and alcohol are important risk factors, but human papillomavirus (HPV) today causes most of those tumors. Symptoms include pharyngitis and painful and / or difficult swallowing. Treatment is with radiation, chemotherapy, or both, but primary surgery is becoming more common. The survival rate is far higher in HPV-positive patients.

As with most head and neck cancers, non-HPV-related oropharyngeal cancer is more common in older men with a mean age of 61 years. Tobacco and alcohol remain the main risk factors for orop…

Cancer of the Hypopharynx: Early Symptoms, Treated, Metastasis and Detect Cancer

What is cancer of the hypopharynx?Cancers of the hypopharynx are tumors of the lower pharynx. They are found mostly in males from the ages of 49 to 60.Hypopharyngeal carcinoma may be a malignant neoplasm within the area of the hypopharynx (lower pharynx). Hypopharyngeal carcinoma may be a sort of laryngeal carcinoma.

Alcohol abuse and nicotine abuse especially together favor the event of hypopharyngeal cancer. Furthermore, occupational exposure to metal dusts, coal and tar products, and asbestos cement are often carcinogenic. Poor oral hygiene, which results in a pathological composition of saliva, may be a risk factor.

Hypopharyngeal carcinomas are usually moderately differentiated epithelial cell carcinomas. Piriform sinus carcinomas often have a submucosal spread pattern and show only the "tip of the iceberg" in .
There are three clinical regions of the hypopharynx:Piriform sinus (approx. 90%)
Posterior throat wall (approx. 5%)
Post-cricoid region (approx. 5%)

What are the ea…

Salivary gland tumors: How to treat, symptoms and after operation.

Where are the salivary glands? The major salivary glands are in the sides of the face, in front of and slightly below the ears. These salivary glands are also known as parotid glands. The saliva gets from these glands to the mouth through parotid ducts, which open on the inner surfaces of the cheeks. There is also a pair of glands in the lower jaws (submandibular glands) and under the tongue (sublingual glands). The ducts from these glands open into the floor of the mouth underneath the tongue.
Where are tumors of the salivary glands found? Tumors of the salivary glands are most often found in the parotid glands. Most often these tumors are not malignant. They are either on the outer surface of the parotid gland, which is near the ear, or in the inner surface, which is in the mouth. Benign parotid gland tumors are usually painless and slow growing. Malignant tumors ofthe parotid tend to grow rapidly. Sometimes a tumor seems to be benign for many years and then suddenly becomes malignan…

What kind of treatment is used in head and neck cancer?

Are cancers of the head and neck common?Head and neck cancers constitute only about 5 percent of all cancers. They are not common cancers, especially in comparison with cancers of the breast, lung, or colon rectal areas. However, since they are difficult to manage and the team approach is most important in treating them, we discuss the major types of head and neck cancer in some detail in this blog.

Do cancers of the head and neck metastasize to other parts of the body? Unlike many other types of tumor, tumors in the head and neck usually remain confined to that area. They do not tend to metastasize to distant parts of the body. However, they do tend to spread to lymph nodes in the area.
What kind of treatment is used in head and neck cancer? As is true with most other types of cancer, treatment includes all three disciplines: surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Surgery is the treatment most often used. Usually early tumors are treated by surgery with adjoining tissue taken out. If…

Are most tumors of the lip cancerous? Does lip cancer metastasize?

No, most tumors on the lips are benign. They are usually warty growths or tumors of the blood vessels. Most of these can be cured by one of several methods: cutting them out and stitching the cut edges together, burning them with an electric needle, freezing them, or treating them with x-ray.

Do benign lip tumors ever turn into cancer? Sometimes. Warty growths have a tendency to become cancerous and should be removed.

Where does cancer of the lip occur most commonly? Lip cancer usually occurs on the lower lip, in men between the ages of 60 and 70. Chapping, overexposure to sunburn, and smoking (especially pipe smoking) are thought to be factors in developing this cancer. Cancer of the lip is fairly common and usually highly curable, especially if there is no involvement with the lymph nodes in the neck.
How is lip cancer treated? Sometimes surgery is used, usually a procedure called a V-lip excision. Sometimes radiation therapy is used, especially for larger cancers. Very large lip canc…

Head and neck cancer most common early symptoms

What are the most common symptoms of head and neck cancer? The most common early symptoms differ depending upon the site. A small ulcer in the mouth is one symptom. It may first appear somewhere on the tongue, around the tonsils, or along the edges of the upper and lower gums. It may look like a cold sore. It is usually painless and unlike a cold sore it does not heal by itself. Difficulty in swallowing, continued hoarseness, a sore throat that persists, neck swelling, and a lump on the side of the neck are all early symptoms which, if they last for more than 2 weeks, should be checked by a doctor.
Cancers of the head and neck are those that affect any part of the oral cavity: lip, tongue, mouth, ear, and throat, as well as the sinuses and sometimes muscles in the neck and upper back. Reconstructive surgery is a recent blessing for those who have cancers in any of these areas, for defects in the various facial structures such as eyes, ears, nose, mouth, lips, cheek and neck can be mini…

Cancer of the Penis: Usual Treatment, symptoms, metastasis and sexual problems

Does cancer of the penis ever occur?  Cancer of the penis is quite rare. It usually occurs on the tip of the penis and is almost exclusively found in uncircumcised males between the ages of 50 and 70. In others, cancer of the penis is found to be a metastasis from the bladder, prostate, lung, pancreas, kidney, testicle, or ureter.

What symptoms should alert a man to the possibility of cancer of the penis? A pimple or sore, small nodule, white thickened patches, raised, velvety patch, wart or ulcer especially a painless ulcer are all suspicious symptoms. Bleeding associated with erection or intercourse, persistent abnormal erection without sexual desire, foul smelling discharge, or a lump in the groin should all be carefully investigated.
What is the usual treatment for cancer of the penis?  The usual treatment is surgery. Approximately 90 percent of patients with cancer of the penis, if it is found in the early stages, will be cured through the surgical removal of the tumor. If the canc…

Testicular Cancer:Diagnosis,symptoms,types,treatments and all questions

How is testicular cancer usually discovered? Most testicular cancers are discovered by patients themselves, by accident or by practicing a simple exam known as TSE or testicular self examination. TSE is usually done once a month, during or soon after a warm bath or shower. While standing, the man gently rolls one testicle between his thumb and fingers, checking for lumps, swelling or other changes.

The process is repeated for the other testicle. Is testicular cancer a common type of cancer? No, it is not. Testicular cancer actually accounts for only 1 percent of all cancer in males and about 3 percent of cancer of the male urogenital organs. However, in the age group where it occurs in white men from 20 to 34 it is the most common cancer, accounting for 22 percent of all cancers for this age group. It is also the second most common cancer in men from ages 35 to 39 and the third most common from 15 to 19. Thanks to treatment advances in the last 10 years, testicular cancer is considered…