What is a radical neck dissection? when is it done?

What is a radical neck dissection? The surgeon removes a block of tissue from the collarbone to the jaw and from the front to the back of the neck. The large muscle on the side of the neck that is used for rotating, flexing or extending the neck is also taken out, along with the major vein on the side of the neck. Sometimes, a less drastic operation, called a supraomohyoid neck dissection is done. This takes out only the lymph nodes, the tissue surrounding the nodes and a muscle at the front of the neck. Another technique, called a functional neck dissection, saves the muscles of the neck, taking out only the lymph nodes and tissues surrounding them.
What kind of incision is made with a radical neck dissection? The incision depends upon what the surgery is for. It can run from below the ear to the collarbone. Everything in the front of the neck on one side or on both sides may be removed. This may include the lymph nodes, blood vessels, nerves, and the salivary gland under the jawbone.

What treatments are used for acute leukemia?

What is the usual course for acute leukemia? 

When acute leukemia is diagnosed, abnormal white blood cells usually make up 50 percent or more of the white cells in the bone marrow. Often there are signs of leukemic cells in the spleen, lymph nodes, liver, and other tissues. Blood samples show abnormally low levels of red cells, platelets, and mature white cells. Left untreated, acute leukemia leaves the body open to infection and bleeding and is rapidly fatal.

What treatments are used for acute leukemia? 

Treatment with a combination of chemotherapy drugs begins with induction therapy, which usually lasts 4 to 6 weeks. This is the most intensive stage of treatment, since its purpose is to destroy as many abnormal white blood cells as possible. Induction therapy is followed by the second phase of treatment called consolidation therapy and the third called maintenance therapy.

Treatment of Acute Myeloid Leukemia

Are the same drugs used for AML and for ANLL? 

No. Treatment for AML differs from that for ANLL in both the combinations and the dosages of drugs used.

Is immunotherapy used for acute leukemias? 

Not usually. Research has shown immunotherapy to be of little value against large numbers of leukemia cells. Its use has therefore been limited to patients in remission with the goal of prolonging the disease free period. Intensive research continues on ways to stimulate the body's natural immune defenses against disease. So far, however, results of studies using immunotherapy have proved disappointing.


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