What is a radical neck dissection? when is it done?

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What is a radical neck dissection? The surgeon removes a block of tissue from the collarbone to the jaw and from the front to the back of the neck. The large muscle on the side of the neck that is used for rotating, flexing or extending the neck is also taken out, along with the major vein on the side of the neck. Sometimes, a less drastic operation, called a supraomohyoid neck dissection is done. This takes out only the lymph nodes, the tissue surrounding the nodes and a muscle at the front of the neck. Another technique, called a functional neck dissection, saves the muscles of the neck, taking out only the lymph nodes and tissues surrounding them.
What kind of incision is made with a radical neck dissection? The incision depends upon what the surgery is for. It can run from below the ear to the collarbone. Everything in the front of the neck on one side or on both sides may be removed. This may include the lymph nodes, blood vessels, nerves, and the salivary gland under the jawbone.

What is the sign and symptoms of bladder cancer?

Bladder Cancer

What is the function of the bladder? 

The urinary bladder is the reservoir for the urine. It is located in the front part of the pelvic cavity. It is elastic and increases in size as the urine accumulates. It is the seat of many disorders, including bladder stones, tumors, infections (or cystitis), obstruction, and paralysis.

What are the symptoms of bladder cancer? 

Bloody urine is often a first sign, although bloody urine can also be the sign of many other urinary problems. The color can range from a smoky shade to deep red. There is usually no accompanying pain, and the amount of blood does not usually relate to the size of the tumor. Any sign of blood in the urine, even if it happens only once, is a warning to see your doctor immediately so that whatever condition is present can be treated. Bloody urine can also be a sign of conditions such as tumors, infections, or bladder stones. Other symptoms ofbladder cancer include a change in bladder habits with an increase in the frequency of urination and, rarely, retention of urine or incontinence.

Bladder cancer and its signs and symptoms

Who is most likely to get bladder cancer? 

Bladder cancer occurs most frequently in persons between 50 and 70 years of age. Four of every five patients are men. There are two main types of cancer of the bladder papillary and transitional cell carcinoma. Less frequently found are squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma.

What is papillary cancer of the bladder? 

This is the most common type and the most easily cured. It starts on the bladder wall but grows into the bladder cavity and remains attached to the bladder wall by a mushroomlike stem. This type of tumor may be single or multiple, pea sized or large enough to occupy the entire bladder. The tumor cells appear to be almost normal.

Are most bladder tumors found to be cancerous? 

No. Many bladder tumors are found to be benign. However, benign tumors may become malignant. The doctor can often detect the change of a lesion by doing a cystoscopy. When seen with the cystoscope, the growths may appear to be like a series of warts, with the larger ones taking on a cauliflower appearance.

Is bladder cancer likely to metastasize to other parts of the body? 

Fortunately most bladder cancers are slow growing and do not tend to spread to other parts of the body as do other cancers. Metastases usually are found first in the pelvic lymph nodes and usually remain localized there for a long time. Early detection and removal is the easiest and surest cure, since bladder cancer can spread to the lung, bones, and liver.

Recognizing the early warning signs of bladder cancer

Is it unusual for bladder tumors to recur? 

There is a great tendency for bladder tumors to recur either in the same location or in some other part of the bladder. Most of these growths are noncancerous, and many that are malignant are slow growing. Most recurrences can be treated easily and successfully.


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