What is a radical neck dissection? when is it done?

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What is a radical neck dissection? The surgeon removes a block of tissue from the collarbone to the jaw and from the front to the back of the neck. The large muscle on the side of the neck that is used for rotating, flexing or extending the neck is also taken out, along with the major vein on the side of the neck. Sometimes, a less drastic operation, called a supraomohyoid neck dissection is done. This takes out only the lymph nodes, the tissue surrounding the nodes and a muscle at the front of the neck. Another technique, called a functional neck dissection, saves the muscles of the neck, taking out only the lymph nodes and tissues surrounding them.
What kind of incision is made with a radical neck dissection? The incision depends upon what the surgery is for. It can run from below the ear to the collarbone. Everything in the front of the neck on one side or on both sides may be removed. This may include the lymph nodes, blood vessels, nerves, and the salivary gland under the jawbone.

What is the sputum cytology test, and how is the sputum examination done?

What is the sputum cytology test?

There are several studies under way using sensitive diagnostic tests which can be done easily, accurately, and inexpensively on a large number of people, since if lung cancer is found in its earliest stages, cure is possible in many cases. One such test that has already shown some success is sputum examination. The patient is asked to cough up some sputum (material coughed up from the lungs). The sputum is examined under a microscope to see if there are cancer cells present which have been shed from the inner lining of the breathing passages. Abnormal cells in the sputum can indicate a hidden cancer too small to be seen in x-ray photographs. The tumor is then located by such techniques as flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy this is an important part of the test because the sputum examination by itself does not tell the doctor where the tumor is located in the bronchial tree.

How is the sputum cytology test done? 

You will be asked not to have anything to eat or drink except water or tea without milk. The nurse will give you a specimen jar which contains 50 percent alcohol to act as a fixative. You must cough very deeply and spit into the specimen jar. If you are unable to cough deeply enough, the doctor will order a machine to assist in getting a good specimen.

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