What is a radical neck dissection? when is it done?

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What is a radical neck dissection? The surgeon removes a block of tissue from the collarbone to the jaw and from the front to the back of the neck. The large muscle on the side of the neck that is used for rotating, flexing or extending the neck is also taken out, along with the major vein on the side of the neck. Sometimes, a less drastic operation, called a supraomohyoid neck dissection is done. This takes out only the lymph nodes, the tissue surrounding the nodes and a muscle at the front of the neck. Another technique, called a functional neck dissection, saves the muscles of the neck, taking out only the lymph nodes and tissues surrounding them.
What kind of incision is made with a radical neck dissection? The incision depends upon what the surgery is for. It can run from below the ear to the collarbone. Everything in the front of the neck on one side or on both sides may be removed. This may include the lymph nodes, blood vessels, nerves, and the salivary gland under the jawbone.

What is the relationship of leukemia cells to the central nervous system?

Even after a remission has been achieved, studies of spinal fluid may reveal the presence of leukemic cells in the central nervous system of some patients. The fact that some leukemic cells have found a sanctuary in the central nervous system makes them a threat to the patient. Due to the properties of the capillary walls that prevent certain substances from passing from the blood to the central nervous system, these leukemic cells are not killed by the chemotherapeutic drugs.
Radiation therapy and drugs administered directly into the spinal fluid are being used to help prevent and control central nervous system leukemia. This is more common with ALL than with other types of leukemia.

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