What is a radical neck dissection? when is it done?

What is a radical neck dissection? The surgeon removes a block of tissue from the collarbone to the jaw and from the front to the back of the neck. The large muscle on the side of the neck that is used for rotating, flexing or extending the neck is also taken out, along with the major vein on the side of the neck. Sometimes, a less drastic operation, called a supraomohyoid neck dissection is done. This takes out only the lymph nodes, the tissue surrounding the nodes and a muscle at the front of the neck. Another technique, called a functional neck dissection, saves the muscles of the neck, taking out only the lymph nodes and tissues surrounding them.
What kind of incision is made with a radical neck dissection? The incision depends upon what the surgery is for. It can run from below the ear to the collarbone. Everything in the front of the neck on one side or on both sides may be removed. This may include the lymph nodes, blood vessels, nerves, and the salivary gland under the jawbone.

What is a bronchoscopy used to diagnose?

What is a bronchoscopy?

A bronchoscopy is performed with the use of a rigid bronchoscope or a fiberoptic bronchoscope, depending on the location. The doctor using this instrument can look into the bronchial passages. The bronchoscope is a slender tube with a light at the far end which slides down the throat and into the bronchi.

Bronchoscopy sounds like a very uncomfortable procedure. Is it? 

It doesn't need to be if you cooperate with your physician and the anesthesiologist. Local anesthesia is sprayed into the throat and bronchial tubes, making them feel numb. The bronchoscope is put into only one bronchus at a time, so you have no trouble breathing normally during the examination. You are relaxed and responsive to instructions and remain awake, although you will not remember much of the procedure afterward. Your head will be draped and your eyes covered. You will be asked to cough so that the doctor can obtain a good sample.

What does the doctor see during the bronchoscopy? 

Looking through the bronchoscope, the doctor can illuminate the walls of the bronchi and examine the area. The development of new, flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopes means that the doctor can see around corners and into the inside of much smaller bronchial tubes. The flexibility of the instrument makes it possible for the doctor to take cell samples, using special attachments for biopsy, brushing, scraping, or washing.

How is a bronchoscopy done

Once the tumor is found, a small bit ofliquid can be squirted through the bronchoscope onto the tumor and then withdrawn by suction. This liquid is then examined under the microscope for the presence of tumor cells, just as a sputum specimen might be. A slender cutting tool can be put through the bronchoscope. The doctor uses it to snip a small sample of tissue, which can then be examined under the microscope.

How to do bronchoscopy

Are there any aftereffects of a bronchoscopy? 

It is common for patients to cough up a small amount of blood after a specimen has been taken. This should be no cause for alarm. Some patients have a sore throat or hoarseness. Many people report no discomfort.


Popular Posts

Where does Melanoma most often metastasize?

Ejaculation and sexual life problems after prostate surgery

How to know if your ankle is broken? How is a broken ankle treated?

How painful is a bone marrow transplant for the donor

What is the symptoms of a head concussion? Is concussion a brain injury?

What are the most important side effects of taking female hormones?

How is a broken or cracked rib treated?

What is the difference between a radical mastectomy and modified radical mastectomy?

The most important difference between Hodgkin's disease and non-hodgkin's lymphoma

Common Hand Injuries: Treatment for swollen hand due to injury