What is a radical neck dissection? when is it done?

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What is a radical neck dissection? The surgeon removes a block of tissue from the collarbone to the jaw and from the front to the back of the neck. The large muscle on the side of the neck that is used for rotating, flexing or extending the neck is also taken out, along with the major vein on the side of the neck. Sometimes, a less drastic operation, called a supraomohyoid neck dissection is done. This takes out only the lymph nodes, the tissue surrounding the nodes and a muscle at the front of the neck. Another technique, called a functional neck dissection, saves the muscles of the neck, taking out only the lymph nodes and tissues surrounding them.
What kind of incision is made with a radical neck dissection? The incision depends upon what the surgery is for. It can run from below the ear to the collarbone. Everything in the front of the neck on one side or on both sides may be removed. This may include the lymph nodes, blood vessels, nerves, and the salivary gland under the jawbone.

How is a polyp removed from the colon?

What is a polyp?

A polyp is a growth originating from the mucous membranes of the colon (polyps also occur in the bladder, uterus, nose, etc.). They are very common, occurring in 10 to 15 percent of all adults. Usually they cause few symptoms and are most often found during routine intestinal examinations. Cure, through removal, entails little surgical risk. If cancer is found in the polyp, the area surrounding it is removed. Painless rectal bleeding is the most frequent symptom of a polyp. Because some polyps have a tendency to become cancerous, their removal is recommended by many doctors.

How do doctors remove polyps from colon?

This depends on where the polyp is located. If it is within 8 inches of the rectal opening, it can be removed with a sigmoidoscope through the rectum either burned off or clipped and removed through the rectum. With improved techniques of colonoscopy almost any polyp with a "stalk" can be removed through a colonoscope. Some will still require surgery if they are large or flat. The incision is made at the area of the polyp, the colon is opened, and the polyp is removed. The polyp will be carefully examined to make sure that it is not cancerous. If cancer is found, the segment of the bowel where it grew must be removed.

What is familial polyopsis? 

Familial polyopsis is an inherited condition, which means that if members of your family have developed large numbers of polyps in the intestine, you are more likely to develop these lumps. They grow in the mucous membrane and may become cancerous. People at high risk can protect themselves by getting regular checkups that include a proctosigmoidoscopy, and by seeing a doctor immediately if they have any symptoms of bowel disease.

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