What is a radical neck dissection? when is it done?

What is a radical neck dissection? The surgeon removes a block of tissue from the collarbone to the jaw and from the front to the back of the neck. The large muscle on the side of the neck that is used for rotating, flexing or extending the neck is also taken out, along with the major vein on the side of the neck. Sometimes, a less drastic operation, called a supraomohyoid neck dissection is done. This takes out only the lymph nodes, the tissue surrounding the nodes and a muscle at the front of the neck. Another technique, called a functional neck dissection, saves the muscles of the neck, taking out only the lymph nodes and tissues surrounding them.
What kind of incision is made with a radical neck dissection? The incision depends upon what the surgery is for. It can run from below the ear to the collarbone. Everything in the front of the neck on one side or on both sides may be removed. This may include the lymph nodes, blood vessels, nerves, and the salivary gland under the jawbone.

Are all colon and rectum tumors cancerous?

What is the CEA test?

Research is under way to discover specific antigens, or biological markers, that might indicate the presence of colorectal cancer. One of these antigens, carcinoembroyonic antigen or CEA, may be found in greater amounts in the blood of patients with colorectal cancer. It has been suggested that this marker may be useful in showing at an early stage whether the cancer has recurred in some patients who had been treated for colorectal cancer previously. However, this test cannot be used alone in diagnosing colorectal cancer.

What are some of the symptoms of a tumor in the rectum or colon? 

Rectal bleeding, red blood in the stool, jet black stools, a change in bowel habits or the size of the stool, alternating constipation and diarrhea, crampy abdominal pains, weakness, loss of weight, and loss of appetite. Sometimes you will see a streak of blood in the stool only once. It is important that any sign be checked by a doctor.

If tumors are found, must they always be removed? 

Yes. Most doctors agree that even benign tumors (adenomas or polyps) should be removed, because they may eventually develop into cancer.

How serious is the surgery for tumors of the colon and rectum? 

The operation varies depending on the location, kind, and size of the tumor. Polyps near the rectum can often be removed through the rectum without anesthesia in a surgeon's office, on an outpatient basis in a hospital, or during an overnight hospital stay. For any benign tumor, the procedure is simple removal of the tumor at its base. If the tumor is cancerous, the tumor as well as a generous portion of the colon above and below is removed.

What preparations are necessary before surgery of the colon? 

Usually the patient is required to enter the hospital several days before surgery. Medication with antibiotic drugs and low residue or liquid diets will be prescribed. Blood transfusions may be necessary if you are anemic, as well as vitamin, mineral, and glucose feedings by vein. If there is an obstruction, an attempt may be made to overcome it by passing a tube into the small intestine.

What kind of anesthesia is used? 

General anesthesia is usually preferred. Spinal is sometimes used.

What kind of operation is necessary for cancerous growths in the colon or rectum? 

Again, this depends on the kind, size, and location of the tumor. In all cases, the surgeon removes the tumor. If enough normal colon remains, he will rejoin the healthy pieces so that the patient can function in a normal manner. This happens in about 80 percent of all cases. When this is not possible, then an artificial opening, called a stoma, is made on the abdominal wall. Only about 20 percent of patients have a permanent opening (stoma) as a result of cancer.


Popular Posts

Where does Melanoma most often metastasize?

Ejaculation and sexual life problems after prostate surgery

How to know if your ankle is broken? How is a broken ankle treated?

How painful is a bone marrow transplant for the donor

What is the symptoms of a head concussion? Is concussion a brain injury?

What are the most important side effects of taking female hormones?

How is a broken or cracked rib treated?

What is the difference between a radical mastectomy and modified radical mastectomy?

The most important difference between Hodgkin's disease and non-hodgkin's lymphoma

Common Hand Injuries: Treatment for swollen hand due to injury