Showing posts from June, 2020

Does a radium implant in the vagina cause problems with intercourse?

Cancer of the VaginaHow is cancer of the vagina diagnosed?  Pelvic exams, Pap smears, colposcopy, and iodine or Schiller's tests are used to diagnose cancer of the vagina. Women who have previously had either in situ or invasive carcinoma of the cervix are likely to develop premalignant conditions of the vagina. Leukoplakia of the vagina is usually regarded as a precancerous condition.
Are biopsies usually performed to diagnose cancer of the vagina?  Yes. Biopsy is always necessary to confirm a diagnosis of cancer. Careful diagnosis is important in vaginal cancer, since a biopsy sometimes shows the condition to be a metastasis from another kind of cancer. A biopsy is also important because treatment for each stage of vaginal cancer varies.
What are the treatments for vaginal cancer?  The treatments are surgical, either removing the cancerous areas or doing a total hysterectomy and/or a total vaginectomy and vulvectomy, depending on the stage of the cancer and its location. Sometimes…

What happens if you have vulvar cancer?

Cancer of the VulvaWho is at risk for cancer of the vulva?  Usually women with cancer of the vulva fall into the 60 to 80 year old age group, though it can occur in premenopausal women. It is a fairly uncommon disease. Vulvular cancer which has not metastasized to other parts of the body is highly curable.
What are some of the symptoms?  Common symptoms include itching, burning, pain, and bleeding. A Pap smear and a biopsy are necessary to help diagnose whether these symptoms indicate cancer or whether an infection is present which may be causing the same symptoms.
How is a biopsy taken in the vulvular area? The doctor will give a simple injection of local anesthetic. A small dermatologic punch is usually used to obtain a biopsy. The procedure is simple and almost painless. The doctor may use a colposcope in his routine checking of a suspicious growth in this area. This allows him to have a photographic recording of the site for future reference.

What are the doctor's considerations …

What are the beginning signs of pancreatic cancer?

Cancer of the PancreasWhat is the pancreas?  It is a pulpy, flat gland about 5 inches long by a few inches high, which lies far back on the rear wall of the upper abdominal cavity. The part it plays in the body is a vital and specialized one. It manufactures digestive juices which are passed through the pancreatic duct into the intestine for digestion of proteins, fats, and carbohydrates. Insulin, which is essential for the utilization of sugar, is manufactured in the pancreas and deposited directly into the bloodstream. A duct, called the pancreatic duct, runs through the entire length of the pancreas. The pancreas is often referred to as having a head, a body, and a tail. The head fits into the curve of the duodenum on the right, close to the common bile duct, and the tail curves up toward the spleen. At the head of the pancreas there is often a branching of the main pancreatic duct. These ducts are responsible for collecting the digestive juices manufactured by the gland and deposi…

What are the first signs and early symptoms of liver cancer?

Liver CancerWhat does the liver do?  The liver performs more complex functions than any other organ of the body except the brain. It breaks down wornout red blood cells and converts them into bile. It produces proteins essential to proper blood clotting. It regulates the level of many hormones. It stores sugar and regulates the amount which circulates in the blood. It controls the metabolism of cholesterol. It stores vitamins A, D, E, and K. In fact, the functions of the liver are so many and varied that it is almost impossible to test them all in the clinical laboratory. Where is the liver located?  It fills the upper right side ofthe diaphragm and is protected on both the right and left sides by the rib cage. Can one function without a liver?  No, it is not possible to function without any liver. However, one can live normally with as little as 15 to 20 percent of the normal liver. The liver's powers ofrecuperation are truly amazing. Can cysts on the liver be removed?  Yes, most cy…

What is the most common treatment for stomach cancer?

Stomach CancerWhere is the stomach located?  The stomach is a pouchlike organ which makes up a relatively small part of the intestinal tract. It lies below the diaphragm in the left upper part of the abdomen, crossing over to the right below the liver. The stomach hangs comparatively free in the abdominal cavity and moves with breathing.
What symptoms indicate the possibility of stomach cancer?  Unfortunately, the symptoms of stomach cancer are often vague and nonspecific. The most common symptom of stomach cancer is indigestion. This may consist of a sense of discomfort or mild pain, fullness or bloating, burping, slight nausea, heartburn, or loss of appetite. Of course these are signs which we find easy to ignore, but if they persist even intermittently for a period of 2 weeks, your doctor should be consulted. Later signs might include blood in the stools or vomiting, rapid weight loss, and severe pain. These symptoms may also indicate the presence of an ulcer.
Symptoms of Stomach Can…

How do you know if you have kidney cancer?

Kidney CancerWhat is the function of the kidneys?  There are two kidneys, one on each side of the back portion of the abdomen, located rather high in the loin. Their function is to filter waste products from the blood, returning to the circulating blood those substances that are necessary for normal chemical balance. They.central portion of each kidney is hollow and receives the body fluids. The urine leaves the kidney and passes down its ureter a long tubular structure which connects with the bladder.
What are the symptoms of kidney tumors?  Four symptoms can warn the patient of the possibility of kidney tumors: persistent pain in the area over the kidneys, either in the back or along the side of the body; blood in the urine; a feeling of a lump or mass in the kidney region; and fever or weight loss.
What Are Some Symptoms of Kidney Cancer? Link
Are all kidney tumors cancerous?  No. Many are benign. The benign growths often are filled with fluid and can be classified as cysts. They vary …

What is the latest treatment for bladder cancer?

Bladder cancer latest treatmentHow is bladder cancer treated? There are so many different types and stages of bladder cancer that therapy varies widely among individual patients. A single papillary tumor may be successfully treated by electrically destroying the tissue. When the tumor is malignant and extensive, it may be necessary to remove the entire bladder. Multiple tumors, even at an early stage, are usually treated by surgical removal of the tumors themselves as well as surrounding tissue. Following surgery, a solution containing an anticancer drug may be instilled into the bladder to decrease the chance of the tumors recurring. If surgery is not available, radiation therapy can be used to destroy the cancer. Tumor killing doses of radiation can be delivered to the bladder without excessive damage to overlying tissues, permitting the cure of some advanced tumors not suited to surgical removal. Radioisotopes and chemotherapy are also used in the treatment of bladder cancer. Somet…

What is the sign and symptoms of bladder cancer?

Bladder CancerWhat is the function of the bladder?  The urinary bladder is the reservoir for the urine. It is located in the front part of the pelvic cavity. It is elastic and increases in size as the urine accumulates. It is the seat of many disorders, including bladder stones, tumors, infections (or cystitis), obstruction, and paralysis.
What are the symptoms of bladder cancer?  Bloody urine is often a first sign, although bloody urine can also be the sign of many other urinary problems. The color can range from a smoky shade to deep red. There is usually no accompanying pain, and the amount of blood does not usually relate to the size of the tumor. Any sign of blood in the urine, even if it happens only once, is a warning to see your doctor immediately so that whatever condition is present can be treated. Bloody urine can also be a sign of conditions such as tumors, infections, or bladder stones. Other symptoms ofbladder cancer include a change in bladder habits with an increase in …

How long will it take me to get adjusted to the colostomy bag and using it?

Will I have the colostomy bag on when I return from the operating room?  Usually, patients who have had ileostomies will return from surgery with a temporary ostomy bag in place. A patient who has had a colostomy will not have fecal drainage until he begins to eat again a few days or a week after the operation. He will return from surgery with dressings but with no ostomy bag. When fecal matter begins to be expelled, a temporary colostomy bag will be applied. Because this is a temporary appliance, it may not work as well as the permanent one. Furthermore, the process is more complicated because you have so recently had the operation. Don't be dismayed by the whole procedure. It will become a simple, routine matter for you when you return home. Thousands of people from every walk of life have had colostomies and are able to attend to their businesses and their homes, marry, have babies, play golf or tennis, swim, dance, go to the movies in other words, live perfectly normal lives.

Can you live a normal life without a colon and intestine?

Can the body function without a large portion of the intestines?  A person has about 20 feet of small intestine and 5 feet of large intestine (the large intestine is larger in diameter than the small intestine, thus its name). He can live quite well without a portion of his small intestine and without his entire large intestine (colon). Most digestion actually takes place before food reaches the colon.The colon's function is to absorb the water from the already digested material and to transport waste through its length and store it until it is ready to be expelled from the body. The remaining portions of the colon learn to assume some of the water absorption role of the intestine that was removed. Even though to a layman the removal of a portion of the small intestine or even all of the colon and rectum sounds as though it would make it impossible for the body to function, the fact is that after successful surgery the body adjusts to the loss of the large or small intestine and r…

Is small intestine cancer curable and is it common?

Is cancer of the small intestine common? Cancer of the small intestine is much less common than those of the nearby organs: esophagus, stomach, pancreas, and colon. Cancers of the small intestine are almost always treatable and sometimes curable.
How are cancers of the small intestine staged?  There is no specific staging system for this kind of cancer. Cell type is a major factor in determining treatment.
What are the cell types of cancer of the small intestine? There are three major types: • Adenocarcinoma is the most common and usually produces symptoms of obstruction of the bowel.

Lymphomas also produce symptoms of bowel obstruction as well as bleeding. The majority of these tumors are non-Hodgkin's lymphomas.

 • Leiomyosarcomas may reach large size before diagnosis. Symptoms include bleeding and obstruction as well as weight loss, fever, and abdominal pain.
How is cancer of the small intestine treated? Cancer of the small intestine is treated with surgery in most cases. Small …

What is a stoma and how does it work

What is a stoma? A stoma is an opening or hole made in the skin for the end of the small or large intestine in cases where it must be brought through the abdominal wall. The end of the intestine is fastened at the skin level so that it cannot slip back. The diameter of the opening may vary from 1/2 inch to 3 inches or more.
What is the name of the operation used to create a stoma? This surgery is an ostomy. Whether permanent or temporary, it takes the name of the area where it is performed. If in the colon, it is called a colostomy. Following colostomy,bowel movements are received in a pouch placed over the stoma.
A stoma sounds uncomfortable. Is it? A well cared for, healthy stoma is comfortable and painless and does not interfere with physical activity. However, much of the success with which a patient is able to handle the stoma is determined by the way in which the surgery is carried out, as well as the attitude of the patient.
How can I be sure that mine will be a stoma that is easi…

Which is better colostomy or ileostomy?

Are all colostomies permanent? No, many of them are temporary that is, after a certain period of time, in a second operation, the colon is rejoined and the hole in the abdomen is closed up. These operations are often referred to as two stage procedures. The first operation is a temporary colostomy. The second is an operation to rejoin the colon and close the colostomy. The number of patients who require colostomies has been reduced, thanks to new surgical techniques and materials. Often the doctor is able to perform a one stage operation, bringing together the healthy sections of the colon after the tumor has been removed.
When is a permanent colostomy necessary?  Permanent colostomies are usually necessary when the growth is in the region of the lower rectum. In this case, the rectum is removed and the upper portion of the colon is brought out onto the abdominal wall in the form of a permanent colostomy.
What are temporary colostomies called?  There are several different kinds, each of…

Are all colon and rectum tumors cancerous?

What is the CEA test? Research is under way to discover specific antigens, or biological markers, that might indicate the presence of colorectal cancer. One of these antigens, carcinoembroyonic antigen or CEA, may be found in greater amounts in the blood of patients with colorectal cancer. It has been suggested that this marker may be useful in showing at an early stage whether the cancer has recurred in some patients who had been treated for colorectal cancer previously. However, this test cannot be used alone in diagnosing colorectal cancer.
What are some of the symptoms of a tumor in the rectum or colon? Rectal bleeding, red blood in the stool, jet black stools, a change in bowel habits or the size of the stool, alternating constipation and diarrhea, crampy abdominal pains, weakness, loss of weight, and loss of appetite. Sometimes you will see a streak of blood in the stool only once. It is important that any sign be checked by a doctor.
If tumors are found, must they always be remov…