What is a radical neck dissection? when is it done?

What is a radical neck dissection? The surgeon removes a block of tissue from the collarbone to the jaw and from the front to the back of the neck. The large muscle on the side of the neck that is used for rotating, flexing or extending the neck is also taken out, along with the major vein on the side of the neck. Sometimes, a less drastic operation, called a supraomohyoid neck dissection is done. This takes out only the lymph nodes, the tissue surrounding the nodes and a muscle at the front of the neck. Another technique, called a functional neck dissection, saves the muscles of the neck, taking out only the lymph nodes and tissues surrounding them.
What kind of incision is made with a radical neck dissection? The incision depends upon what the surgery is for. It can run from below the ear to the collarbone. Everything in the front of the neck on one side or on both sides may be removed. This may include the lymph nodes, blood vessels, nerves, and the salivary gland under the jawbone.

What worse type1 or type2 diabetes?

What do they mean when they say you have Type I or Type II diabetes?

Type I is another and newer term for juvenile or insulin dependent diabetes. This kind of diabetes usually occurs in children, but it can occur at any age. That's why it's a preferred term over juvenile diabetes. It now covers people like June, who got it as an adult but has to take insulin.
The three people represented on this graph each had 100 grams of glucose administered by mouth. One person (A-Normal) is nondiabetic. One person (B-Normal) has impaired glucose tolerance. And the other person (C-DM) is diabetic, either insulindependent or non insulin dependent. You can see that the nondiabetic's body has removed most of the glucose from circulation within two hours. In the diabetic, whose glucose levels were already too high, the glucose level shot even higher than at first, and three hours later, the levels had not yet begun to drop. The person with impaired glucose tolerance has a curve similar to that of the nondiabetic, except that it is somewhat higher. Also, at the end of two hours, this person's glucose level had dropped only slightly, whereas the nondiabetic's blood-glucose level had returned to normal.

Type II is the newer term for adult-onset, non-insulindependent diabetes.

Types I and II can be further broken down into types la and lb to distinguish between those who produce no insulin of their own and those (again, like June) who produce some but not enough. Type II can be broken down into Ha and lib, with the former referring to the overweight (or as the medical profession prefers, obese) and the latter to the nonobese.


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