What is a radical neck dissection? when is it done?

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What is a radical neck dissection? The surgeon removes a block of tissue from the collarbone to the jaw and from the front to the back of the neck. The large muscle on the side of the neck that is used for rotating, flexing or extending the neck is also taken out, along with the major vein on the side of the neck. Sometimes, a less drastic operation, called a supraomohyoid neck dissection is done. This takes out only the lymph nodes, the tissue surrounding the nodes and a muscle at the front of the neck. Another technique, called a functional neck dissection, saves the muscles of the neck, taking out only the lymph nodes and tissues surrounding them.
What kind of incision is made with a radical neck dissection? The incision depends upon what the surgery is for. It can run from below the ear to the collarbone. Everything in the front of the neck on one side or on both sides may be removed. This may include the lymph nodes, blood vessels, nerves, and the salivary gland under the jawbone.

What is a heart attack in simple terms?

What exactly is a heart attack?

A heart attack is a closure of one or more of the heart’s arteries (the coronary arteries) sufficient to damage some heart muscle cells. The closure is due first to narrowing of the artery by atherosclerotic plaques, followed by a clot (or thrombus) that completely closes the artery, causing the usual “heart attack.”

A heart attack, sometimes referred to as a “coronary,” has two interchangeable “official” names: either coronary thrombosis or myocardial infarction (the latter often called Ml). Since thrombosis means “clot,” the term coronary thrombosis refers to the clot that blocks an artery. The narrowing of the artery makes it susceptible to a clot. The myocardial infarction is the end result: the heart muscle (the myocardium), now starved for oxygen because blood is no longer reaching some of the muscle, responds with an infarction. The term infarction is derived from a Latin word infarcire meaning “to stuff in” referring to the reddish and swollen appearance of that injured part of the heart.

The closure of an artery by the thrombosis injures the heart’s muscle cells, which release some chemicals, called enzymes, into the bloodstream, allowing your doctor to help confirm the diagnosis by measuring the levels of these enzymes.

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