What is a radical neck dissection? when is it done?

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What is a radical neck dissection? The surgeon removes a block of tissue from the collarbone to the jaw and from the front to the back of the neck. The large muscle on the side of the neck that is used for rotating, flexing or extending the neck is also taken out, along with the major vein on the side of the neck. Sometimes, a less drastic operation, called a supraomohyoid neck dissection is done. This takes out only the lymph nodes, the tissue surrounding the nodes and a muscle at the front of the neck. Another technique, called a functional neck dissection, saves the muscles of the neck, taking out only the lymph nodes and tissues surrounding them.
What kind of incision is made with a radical neck dissection? The incision depends upon what the surgery is for. It can run from below the ear to the collarbone. Everything in the front of the neck on one side or on both sides may be removed. This may include the lymph nodes, blood vessels, nerves, and the salivary gland under the jawbone.

What is the failure rate of bypass?

What is the outlook for recovery after a bypass? 

The outlook is very good. About 500,000 of these operations are performed every year in the United States alone. If, after surgery, the heart attack survivor adopts the right lifestyle and takes medication (if needed), bypasses have a high rate of success.

what is the failure rate of bypass

The rate of failure is very low: about 4 percent of the implanted blood vessels close each year. Failures increase to about 6 percent a year after six years.

If you do not change your lifestyle continuing smoking being he extreme case a new bypass may be necessary after a few years. With each successive bypass the rate of success declines. This makes sense as the heart has already been altered by the first surgery, by a bypass in place that has failed. The picture gets more and more complex for the surgeon with every operation.

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