What is a radical neck dissection? when is it done?

What is a radical neck dissection? The surgeon removes a block of tissue from the collarbone to the jaw and from the front to the back of the neck. The large muscle on the side of the neck that is used for rotating, flexing or extending the neck is also taken out, along with the major vein on the side of the neck. Sometimes, a less drastic operation, called a supraomohyoid neck dissection is done. This takes out only the lymph nodes, the tissue surrounding the nodes and a muscle at the front of the neck. Another technique, called a functional neck dissection, saves the muscles of the neck, taking out only the lymph nodes and tissues surrounding them.
What kind of incision is made with a radical neck dissection? The incision depends upon what the surgery is for. It can run from below the ear to the collarbone. Everything in the front of the neck on one side or on both sides may be removed. This may include the lymph nodes, blood vessels, nerves, and the salivary gland under the jawbone.

What is an angiogram of the heart after a heart attack

What is an angiogram? 

An angiogram, also called coronary angiography, is based on “cardiac catheterization,” which refers to the insertion of a catheter a small flexible tube into the heart. This invasive procedure is performed in a hospital. The tube is inserted under local anesthesia through an artery in the arm or groin area of the leg and carefully guided into the heart. After the catheter has reached the heart, a dye is injected that allows the heart’s arteries to be measured for narrowing due to atherosclerosis. This procedure is considered the most definitive way to determine how much atherosclerosis you have and is regarded by many cardiologists as the mainstay of heart disease diagnosis.

When an angiogram is done, the doctor might find the narrowing so serious that the catheter is then immediately used as a tool to open the clogged artery seen in the angiogram. This procedure, called angioplasty or balloon angioplasty, is done by inflating a balloon in the artery to squeeze the plaque to a smaller size.


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