What is a radical neck dissection? when is it done?

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What is a radical neck dissection? The surgeon removes a block of tissue from the collarbone to the jaw and from the front to the back of the neck. The large muscle on the side of the neck that is used for rotating, flexing or extending the neck is also taken out, along with the major vein on the side of the neck. Sometimes, a less drastic operation, called a supraomohyoid neck dissection is done. This takes out only the lymph nodes, the tissue surrounding the nodes and a muscle at the front of the neck. Another technique, called a functional neck dissection, saves the muscles of the neck, taking out only the lymph nodes and tissues surrounding them.
What kind of incision is made with a radical neck dissection? The incision depends upon what the surgery is for. It can run from below the ear to the collarbone. Everything in the front of the neck on one side or on both sides may be removed. This may include the lymph nodes, blood vessels, nerves, and the salivary gland under the jawbone.

What condition may be treated using an artificial pacemaker?

What are pacemakers? 

Pacemakers are miniature lithium battery powered devices that take over control of the heartbeat. They are surgically implanted either under the skin or next to the heart and emit electrical impulses. Most commonly, pacemakers are used when the heart beats too slowly due to a disorder called heart block. Rapid heartbeat disorders called arrhythmias may also be treated with pacemakers, but are now more commonly treated through surgical removal of an abnormal electrical pathway in the heart. Many advances in the design of pacemakers and in the surgical control of abnormal heart rhythms have occurred in recent years, including successful miniaturization of pacemakers.

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