What is a radical neck dissection? when is it done?

What is a radical neck dissection? The surgeon removes a block of tissue from the collarbone to the jaw and from the front to the back of the neck. The large muscle on the side of the neck that is used for rotating, flexing or extending the neck is also taken out, along with the major vein on the side of the neck. Sometimes, a less drastic operation, called a supraomohyoid neck dissection is done. This takes out only the lymph nodes, the tissue surrounding the nodes and a muscle at the front of the neck. Another technique, called a functional neck dissection, saves the muscles of the neck, taking out only the lymph nodes and tissues surrounding them.
What kind of incision is made with a radical neck dissection? The incision depends upon what the surgery is for. It can run from below the ear to the collarbone. Everything in the front of the neck on one side or on both sides may be removed. This may include the lymph nodes, blood vessels, nerves, and the salivary gland under the jawbone.

Is estrogen good for heart health?

I am postmenopausal; is it true that estrogen is good for my heart? 

This is a difficult question to answer, as estrogens have both positive and negative effects in postmenopausal women. Considerable research has suggested that estrogen is protective; however, recent studies have shed doubt on that conclusion, so this remains a controversial issue. There is some concern that prolonged use of estrogen may increase the risk of breast cancer.
It is known that estrogen can increase blood triglyceride levels in about 10 percent of susceptible women and this can increase the risk of a heart attack. Women on hormone replacement therapy (HRT) also have an increased blood clotting tendency. It is important to work with your doctor on this complex question, since the answer is not clear cut.


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