What is a radical neck dissection? when is it done?

What is a radical neck dissection? The surgeon removes a block of tissue from the collarbone to the jaw and from the front to the back of the neck. The large muscle on the side of the neck that is used for rotating, flexing or extending the neck is also taken out, along with the major vein on the side of the neck. Sometimes, a less drastic operation, called a supraomohyoid neck dissection is done. This takes out only the lymph nodes, the tissue surrounding the nodes and a muscle at the front of the neck. Another technique, called a functional neck dissection, saves the muscles of the neck, taking out only the lymph nodes and tissues surrounding them.
What kind of incision is made with a radical neck dissection? The incision depends upon what the surgery is for. It can run from below the ear to the collarbone. Everything in the front of the neck on one side or on both sides may be removed. This may include the lymph nodes, blood vessels, nerves, and the salivary gland under the jawbone.

How do i test my blood for ketones

How do I test for ketones?

A better question might be, when do I test for ketones? The answer for diabetics on insulin is whenever two consecutive urine tests measure 2 percent sugar or when your blood sugar tests are over 200. For non insulin dependent diabetics who still produce some insulin of their own, the situation is not so crucial. Those who have a high renal threshold and are running higher blood sugar than they realize, can, of course get in trouble. All diabetics need to watch for ketones when they have infections or illnesses or out of the ordinary emotional stress. Now, how do you test? There are two products to use:


This is a stick. You dip it into urine, wait fifteen seconds, and compare with six color blocks to determine the amount of ketones. (Keto-Diastix measure both ketones and glucose on the same stick.)


This is a tablet. You place a drop of urine on it, wait thirty seconds, and then compare the result with a color chart. Since urine and blood sugar and ketone tests are important information for your doctor as well as for you,


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