What is a radical neck dissection? when is it done?

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What is a radical neck dissection? The surgeon removes a block of tissue from the collarbone to the jaw and from the front to the back of the neck. The large muscle on the side of the neck that is used for rotating, flexing or extending the neck is also taken out, along with the major vein on the side of the neck. Sometimes, a less drastic operation, called a supraomohyoid neck dissection is done. This takes out only the lymph nodes, the tissue surrounding the nodes and a muscle at the front of the neck. Another technique, called a functional neck dissection, saves the muscles of the neck, taking out only the lymph nodes and tissues surrounding them.
What kind of incision is made with a radical neck dissection? The incision depends upon what the surgery is for. It can run from below the ear to the collarbone. Everything in the front of the neck on one side or on both sides may be removed. This may include the lymph nodes, blood vessels, nerves, and the salivary gland under the jawbone.

Estrogen hormone function in females

As a group, the three estrogens have fundamental tasks. First, estrogens function in the development of the breasts, ovaries and uterus from the time of adolescence through the reproductive years. Second, estrogens function in the menstrual cycle itself, as we’ve already seen.

Does estrogen affect only the reproductive cycle?

No. Estrogen affects other areas of the body, too. The tissues in the cervix, vagina and bladder are sensitive to estrogen levels in the bloodstream. Estrogen helps bones absorb calcium, keeping bone mass high and bones strong. And in the blood itself, estrogen raises the levels of HDL (high-density lipoprotein), the so-called good cholesterol, while lowering the levels of LDL (low-density lipoprotein), the so-called bad cholesterol.

Does estrogen do its work alone?

No. Estrogen is assisted by progesterone, another female hormone produced by the ovaries. Briefly, in the process of reproduction, estrogen’s primary task is to build up the lining of the uterus to receive a fertilized egg. If an egg is fertilized, progesterone prepares the uterus to accept the egg so that the egg can grow. If the egg is unfertilized, progesterone assists in shedding the uterine lining, which, as you know, causes the normal bleeding called menstruation.

From the time a woman’s menstrual cycle becomes regular until her childbearing years end (generally between ages 45 and 55), her body is on a monthly cycle of hormone release and response, as we’ve described.

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