What is a radical neck dissection? when is it done?

What is a radical neck dissection? The surgeon removes a block of tissue from the collarbone to the jaw and from the front to the back of the neck. The large muscle on the side of the neck that is used for rotating, flexing or extending the neck is also taken out, along with the major vein on the side of the neck. Sometimes, a less drastic operation, called a supraomohyoid neck dissection is done. This takes out only the lymph nodes, the tissue surrounding the nodes and a muscle at the front of the neck. Another technique, called a functional neck dissection, saves the muscles of the neck, taking out only the lymph nodes and tissues surrounding them.
What kind of incision is made with a radical neck dissection? The incision depends upon what the surgery is for. It can run from below the ear to the collarbone. Everything in the front of the neck on one side or on both sides may be removed. This may include the lymph nodes, blood vessels, nerves, and the salivary gland under the jawbone.

Does exercise increase risk of heart attack?

Exercise may be healthy, but how will it slow down or reverse my heart disease? 

Studies have shown that regular exercise lowers the risk of death from a second heart attack; there are about half as many heart attacks among people who exercise, as among those who don’t. Studies also show that heart disease risk factors such as blood cholesterol, triglycerides, lipids, high blood pressure, and obesity are lowered in people who get regular aerobic exercise. Angina attacks decrease in heart disease patients who follow an exercise program. Exercise has also been shown to improve glucose tolerance and retard the development of non-insulin-dependent diabetes.
Exercise is also good for the heart muscle itself. When you do regular aerobic exercise, the heart beats faster, indicating that it is working harder that is, you are exercising the heart muscle. This causes an increase in the size of the muscle, and the amount of blood flowing to it. As the muscle strengthens, it can pump more forcefully, causing even more blood and oxygen to circulate with every stroke. A strong heart, during rest periods, beats fewer times per minute than a weaker heart, allowing more time in each interval for oxygen and nutrients to be absorbed by the heart and other organs and tissue.


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