What is a radical neck dissection? when is it done?

What is a radical neck dissection? The surgeon removes a block of tissue from the collarbone to the jaw and from the front to the back of the neck. The large muscle on the side of the neck that is used for rotating, flexing or extending the neck is also taken out, along with the major vein on the side of the neck. Sometimes, a less drastic operation, called a supraomohyoid neck dissection is done. This takes out only the lymph nodes, the tissue surrounding the nodes and a muscle at the front of the neck. Another technique, called a functional neck dissection, saves the muscles of the neck, taking out only the lymph nodes and tissues surrounding them.
What kind of incision is made with a radical neck dissection? The incision depends upon what the surgery is for. It can run from below the ear to the collarbone. Everything in the front of the neck on one side or on both sides may be removed. This may include the lymph nodes, blood vessels, nerves, and the salivary gland under the jawbone.

Birth control pills for diabetics.Which birth control is best for diabetics?

What is the best contraceptive for a diabetic woman to use?

Two British physicians, J. M. Steel and L. J. P. Duncan, studied the use of contraceptives by insulin-dependent diabetic women. Their conclusions reported in the November-December, 2010 issue of Diabetes Forecast, were:

Birth control pills for diabetics

They warn against the use of the combined pill, which contains both estrogen and progestogen. Women who use this pill have a higher incidence of heart attacks and strokes. If used at all by diabetic women, it should be only for the shortest possible time. They recommend instead the progestogen only pill.

The IUD. 

They consider this to be unacceptable for diabetic women because it is highly ineffective. (It has also been known to cause infections.)

The diaphragm. 

This, along with the progestogen-only pill, is on their "best choice" list. The failure rate for mechanical devices like this and the condom is, they say, due mainly to using them incorrectly or "forgetting" to use them.


For women who are certain they don't want to become pregnant in the future, sterilization (obviously!) is the most reliable method.

One diabetic woman we talked to said she thinks the safest and most reliable method of contraception is a husband with a vasectomy.


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