What is a radical neck dissection? when is it done?

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What is a radical neck dissection? The surgeon removes a block of tissue from the collarbone to the jaw and from the front to the back of the neck. The large muscle on the side of the neck that is used for rotating, flexing or extending the neck is also taken out, along with the major vein on the side of the neck. Sometimes, a less drastic operation, called a supraomohyoid neck dissection is done. This takes out only the lymph nodes, the tissue surrounding the nodes and a muscle at the front of the neck. Another technique, called a functional neck dissection, saves the muscles of the neck, taking out only the lymph nodes and tissues surrounding them.
What kind of incision is made with a radical neck dissection? The incision depends upon what the surgery is for. It can run from below the ear to the collarbone. Everything in the front of the neck on one side or on both sides may be removed. This may include the lymph nodes, blood vessels, nerves, and the salivary gland under the jawbone.

What is the initial symptoms of breast cancer? When are breast lumps treated by needling to remove the fluid?

What is the first sign of breast cancer?

Many women have no signs at all and are first diagnosed by the alert physician during his breast examination. The patient may first note a lump in the breast or a bloody discharge from the nipple, a change in the appearance of the breast, or a lump in the armpit.

 When are breast lumps treated by needling to remove the fluid?

 The method of treatment is termed aspiration. It is employed only when the physician is certain that the lump is a cyst. A cyst can be compared to a balloon filled with water. When the fluid is removed, it is hoped that the cyst wall will collapse and be obliterated. If the cyst recurs after aspiration, it then requires surgical removal. Some women are fortunate in that the cyst never reappears. This procedure must be used cautiously and selectively; it is never employed when the nature of the lump is in doubt. Aspiration is particularly suited to the woman who keeps reforming cysts after a biopsy has shown the benign nature of her disease. However, a woman may have had an innocent breast cyst at one time and sometime later get a cancer in the same or the opposite breast.

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