What is a radical neck dissection? when is it done?

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What is a radical neck dissection? The surgeon removes a block of tissue from the collarbone to the jaw and from the front to the back of the neck. The large muscle on the side of the neck that is used for rotating, flexing or extending the neck is also taken out, along with the major vein on the side of the neck. Sometimes, a less drastic operation, called a supraomohyoid neck dissection is done. This takes out only the lymph nodes, the tissue surrounding the nodes and a muscle at the front of the neck. Another technique, called a functional neck dissection, saves the muscles of the neck, taking out only the lymph nodes and tissues surrounding them.
What kind of incision is made with a radical neck dissection? The incision depends upon what the surgery is for. It can run from below the ear to the collarbone. Everything in the front of the neck on one side or on both sides may be removed. This may include the lymph nodes, blood vessels, nerves, and the salivary gland under the jawbone.

How do doctors detect breast cancer? Breast cancer test at home

How doctors detect breast cancer?

It is possible to feel 90 to 95 percent of breast tumors.Deciding about the nature of the tumor can be another matter. In about two-thirds of patients it is possible, by feel alone, to make a fairly accurate diagnosis of an innocent breast cyst on the one hand or of a definite cancer on the other. In all instances the nature of the lump can be exactly determined only by taking it out in an operation and having it examined under a microscope. This is not to say that all breast lumps have to be removed. The examiner may be so certain that it is a breast cyst that he may recommend initial observation and removal only if it persists.

Breast cancer test at home

Do you approve of women examining their own breasts?

Yes, indeed. It is an excellent form of self-evaluation. The woman who does this regularly, say, seven days before and seven days after her period, will be able to feel the difference when something new appears. Do not get hysterical and assume the worst. It is often a matter of being more frightened than sick. When you do feel something abnormal, make an appointment to see a physician. All doctors understand the anxiety that is associated with the patient's own finding. Often the socalled lump is part of the normal breast or chest wall or a cyst.

How is self breast examination done?

You should be shown how to do this. Any physician will gladly demonstrate it. The technique requires systematic examination of each sector of the breast with the flat of the hand. This should be done in both the lyingdown and sitting-up positions. The base of the nipple should be squeezed to see if there is a discharge. The normal breast can sometimes be made to exude a greenishyellow fluid through the nipple. If the discharge is bloody, further evaluation will certainly be necessary.

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