What is a radical neck dissection? when is it done?

What is a radical neck dissection?

The surgeon removes a block of tissue from the collarbone to the jaw and from the front to the back of the neck. The large muscle on the side of the neck that is used for rotating, flexing or extending the neck is also taken out, along with the major vein on the side of the neck. Sometimes, a less drastic operation, called a supraomohyoid neck dissection is done. This takes out only the lymph nodes, the tissue surrounding the nodes and a muscle at the front of the neck. Another technique, called a functional neck dissection, saves the muscles of the neck, taking out only the lymph nodes and tissues surrounding them.

What kind of incision is made with a radical neck dissection?

The incision depends upon what the surgery is for. It can run from below the ear to the collarbone. Everything in the front of the neck on one side or on both sides may be removed. This may include the lymph nodes, blood vessels, nerves, and the salivary gland under the jawbone.

When is a radical neck dissection performed?

A radical neck dissection is performed to remove the tumor and the lymph nodes in the neck. Cancers such as those of the lips, tongue, and larynx sometimes spread to the lymph nodes, requiring them to be removed.

Is a tracheostomy done as part of the operation for radical neck dissection?

A tracheostomy (opening made in the windpipe) is usually necessary if the doctor is going to perform a radical neck dissection. After a few days the tube will be taken out and the opening will close.

Is a radical neck dissection a major operation?

Yes, it is. It may require up to 5 or 6 hours to perform when it is done along with the removal of the primary cancer.

Why is it important to exercise after I have had radical neck dissection?

In a radical neck dissection, the nerve responsible mainly for arm motion, which connects with one of the most important muscles in your neck and upper back, is cut. It makes it harder for you to raise your arm over your head or out to your side. If the surgery is on both sides of your neck, you will probably have some trouble raising both arms. However, there are special exercises which wiil help you get some of the strength back again.

Are any new techniques being used in the treatment of eye cancer?

Eye cancer is comparatively rare, but is extremely dangerous. People of all ages can contract it, even toddlers and babies. The cancer (tumor) can develop in any area of the attention . Initially, sufferers have little or no complaints and thus usually discover eye cancer very late.

Is cancer of the eye a common tumor?

No. Cancer of the eye is quite rare. The most common form of eye cancer in adults is intraocular melanoma, which is highly curable and preservation of vision is possible in some tumors which are small and local to the eye.

Do children get eye cancer?

Yes, there is a type of eye cancer, called retinoblastoma which affects children.

What is eye cancer and the way does one recognize it?

Adults most ordinarily develop choroidal melanoma. Retinoblastoma is especially observed in children. Lid tumors also occur.

Choroidal melanoma is that the commonest sort of eye cancer. during this form, a clear tumor forms on the choroid. Those suffering from choroidal melanoma complain of visual disturbances, misperceive images and see unusual pigments in their eyes.

The retina is suffering from retinoblastoma. Children under the age of 5 suffer from this sort of eye cancer. The tumors appear in one or both eyes. This eye cancer is noticed by the very fact that when looking into the brilliant light (flashing light) it's not the known "red eyes" that appear , but a whitish-yellowish spot ("cat's eye"). Some sufferers squint inward, eyes red or inflamed. In people , white spots or discoloration on the iris (iris) are often observed. Eyesight is additionally in danger .

Eye cancer on the upper or lower eyelid is typically a acanthoma . There are benign and malignant eyelid tumors. for instance , benign warts, fat deposits or birthmarks. The malignant ones include basalioma, spinalioma and black carcinoma . These aggressive sorts of carcinoma on the lid are usually crusted, slightly bloody and form metastases (daughter tumors) in other organs. Some sufferers lose their eyelashes.

How is intraocular melanoma treated?

The treatment depends on the size and location of the tumor, the amount of eye damage which has occurred, the age of the patient, and whether the tumor grows quickly. If the tumor is extensive, it may be necessary to remove the eye and the muscle and fat surrounding it.

Eye cancer symptoms

Are any new techniques being used in the treatment of eye cancer?

An experimental laser technique called photoradiation therapy (PRT) has been successfully used to treat patients with some types of melanoma of the eye and of retinoblastoma. The patient is injected with a chemical that washes through normal tissue but collects in cancer cells and renders them very light sensitive. When exposed to the red light ofa laser beam, the cancer cells are destroyed, while surrounding normal tissue is unharmed. This is the same type of laser used in cancers of the lung, stomach, bladder, and throat. The treatment does not expose the eye to radiation that might cause cataracts or damage the retina.

The chances of recovery and treatment for eye cancer depend upon the sort and size of the tumor. a private therapy plan is made for every patient. Preserving life is more important than preserving eyesight. Benign growths often recede on their own. Malignant tumors are irradiated, some surgically removed. Chemotherapy is usually used. The tumor also can freeze up (cryocoagulation) or be destroyed by heat with a beam (laser coagulation).

Where does most tongue cancer occur: Symptoms, Red or white patches and Treatment

Who is at high risk to get cancer of the tongue?

Cancer of the tongue appears mostly in men who are over 40 although the proportion of women with tongue cancer is increasing, probably because of increased alcohol and tobacco use.

Where does most tongue cancer occur?

Most cancer of the tongue is situated at the tip or along the side of the tongue. It can usually be discovered early.

What are the symptoms of tongue cancer?

You might see deep red patches. Sometimes there are white patches. Sometimes the deep red patches turn bluish white. This is called leukoplakia, which represents an overgrowth of cells. There may be only a few spots or they may be on the whole tongue. Sometimes they will not hurt. They may be irritating and uncomfortable. The greatest danger of these patches is that if they are not treated, some of the area might turn into cancer. Some people complain of pain, which they usually think is a sore throat. It gets worse when they talk and swallow. Sometimes the pain goes to the side of the head or the ear.

Can the red or white patches on the tongue be removed?

They can be removed with an electric needle or by surgery. They are thought to be caused by tobacco smoking, alcohol, sharp edged or diseased teeth, and faulty fitting or sharpedged dentures.

Can these patches recur? Do they turn into tongue cancer?

Leukoplakia has a tendency to recur, and the recurrent areas can be retreated. The appearance of an ulcer or hard growth in one of these patches often indicates a cancerous change. An ulcer or cracking or peeling develops in the leukoplakic area, and the surrounding region becomes firm and hard. The doctor will take a biopsy of these tissues.

What does cancer of the tongue look like?

Cancer of the tongue usually appears as a painless, thickened, ulcerated area along the margin of the tongue. As it gets bigger, it may be swollen and tender and may bleed occasionally.

Does tongue cancer tend to spread?

Tongue cancer does not tend to spread rapidly. Although most tongue cancer remains confined for months to the original site before spreading to the lymph nodes of the neck, symptoms should not be ignored. If the cancer is toward the back of the tongue, it may spread to lymph nodes on both sides of the neck. .

How can tongue cancer be treated?

Usually surgery is used to remove the tumor. Sometimes radiation external beam, implant, or a combination will be used. For large tumors, neck dissection may be required.

What operations are performed for cancer of the tongue?

Cancers located on the side of the tongue are usually treated by either removing a wedge or half the tongue (hemiglossectomy). If the cancer is on the top of the tongue or in the middle forward portion of it, the doctor will usually remove the front two thirds of it. Cancers of the base of the tongue are almost always treated with radium and x-ray treatments. If the tongue cancer has spread to the lymph nodes, neck dissection will be needed to take out the nodes in the neck. If it has spread to the floor of the mouth, the areas under the tongue which have been affected will be removed. Sometimes the jawbone will be involved. If so, it may be replaced with a bone graft or a metal splint.

Is one treatment preferred above the others?

It depends upon the size of the tumor, the extent of the cancer, and the patient's and doctor's preference. Some cancers can be removed by taking out a wedge of the tongue. Another treatment involves inserting radium needles into the tongue. You should discuss with your doctor the advantages and disadvantages of all treatments before any decision is made.

Will I be able to swallow, speak, and eat normally if I have parts of my tongue removed?

It depends upon the extent of the operation. If a large portion of your tongue is taken out, swallowing can become awkward, but you can still do it. Speech may also be slightly impaired. If 75 percent of the tongue is removed, chewing may become very difficult, making it necessary for you to live on a soft diet. Again, speech may be impaired.

Tongue cancer diagnosis, treatment and side effects

What kind of anesthesia is used for a tongue operation?

General anesthesia is usually used. A tube is placed in the trachea. Often there is a need for blood transfusions for this operation. Special nurses may be needed.

When will I be able to eat after the operation?

You will be on fluids, given through the tube placed in the nose and extending to the stomach, for the first few days. Then you will be able to eat soft foods.

Finding and Removing Tongue Cancer


Will I be able to speak if I have a part of my tongue taken out?

Yes, you will still be able to speak. If you have a small wedge taken out, the deformity is not great. If you have a larger cancer which might remove as much as one third of the tongue from the tip back, your speech will be changed but will remain understandable. With training, many patients, even when more than half the tongue has been removed, learn to talk again. Radium implants or x-ray treatments, if they can be done for your type and stage of cancer, do not ordinarily involve any speech deformity.

Will I have a large scar after tongue surgery?

If you have had neck dissection along with the tongue operation, part of the jawbone and the glands in the neck are removed, leaving a visible scar.

Floor of the mouth cancer: Diagnosis, Metastasize, Treatments and Signs

How is cancer of the floor of the mouth diagnosed?

The doctor will look at and feel the tumor. He will take xrays and do a biopsy to confirm the diagnosis.

Does cancer of the floor of the mouth metastasize?

Yes. This is one of the oral cancers which metastasizes to the lymph nodes in the neck in a good number of patients.

What treatment is used for cancer of the floor of the mouth?

In early stage cancers, the treatment is usually radiation or surgery. Cancers that are more advanced are usually treated with surgery followed by radiation and sometimes chemotherapy.

How the disease progresses cannot be predicted. This depends, among other things, on how fast and aggressively the cancer grows and how big it is. Small, localized tumors can either be operated on or irradiated by doctors. With more advanced cancer, the operation is often supplemented with radiation or radiation chemotherapy. The treatment also depends on the personal needs and the physical condition of the person concerned.

Signs of the floor of the mouth cancer

If the following signs persist for more than 2 weeks, you should see a doctor or dentist:

whitish or red spots in the mouth that cannot be wiped off or scratched off
mouth sores that often bleed easily and do not heal
Swelling in the mouth, foreign body sensation
unclear tooth loosening
Discomfort when chewing and swallowing
increased salivation
Difficulty speaking
decreased mobility of the tongue
Numbness of the tongue, teeth or lip
the contact between the upper and lower teeth when the mouth is closed feels different

What you can do yourself

Care for your mouth and teeth: Brush your teeth, gums and tongue twice a day, preferably in the morning after eating and in the evening before going to bed. Use a fluoride toothpaste.
Go to the dentist regularly. This should not only examine your teeth, but also your oral mucosa.
Pay attention to changes in the mouth. If in doubt, you'd better go to the doctor again.
Smoking increases the risk of oral cancer and many other cancers and cardiovascular diseases.

Cheek Cancer Metastasize: Symptoms, Risky Peoples, Diagnosis and Treatment

Who is at high risk for cancer of the cheek?

Cancer of the inside of the cheek (sometimes referred to by doctors as buccal mucosa) occurs more often in males over the age of 55. It is believed that persons who chew tobacco and betel nuts or who bite their cheeks are at a higher risk of getting cancer of the cheek.

What are the symptoms?

The symptoms include a sore inside the cheek which does not heal, bloody saliva, and white patches inside the cheek. There is usually no pain.

Does cancer of the cheek metastasize?

Cancer of the cheek is usually slow growing. It also has a relatively low rate of metastasis.

How is cancer of the cheek diagnosed?

It is diagnosed by direct inspection and feeling by the doctor. Final diagnosis is by biopsy.

How is cancer of the cheek treated?

Early stages ofcancer ofthe cheek are treated with radiation or by surgery. Advanced cancer of the cheek is treated by surgery, followed by radiation and sometimes chemotherapy.

Oral(Mouth) Cancer: Symptoms, Bleeding, Treatment and Diagnose

What kinds of cancers are found in the mouth?

The cancers of the mouth (oral cavity) include the lip, tongue, floor of the mouth, cheeks (buccal mucosa), and gums (gingivae).

Who is at high risk to get cancer of the mouth?

This cancer is predominantly found in men between the ages of 60 and 70. People who are heavy smokers (more than a pack a day), drink alcohol heavily, are over 45, and have a family history of this kind of cancer are at a higher risk to develop cancers of the oral cavity, the mouth, and the throat.

Is cancer of the mouth easy to detect?

Yes, it is usually discovered early, since it can be seen easily. White patches (leukoplakia), velvety red spots (erythroplasia), or dark patches are symptoms which should be seen by a doctor, who will do a biopsy of them. Many cancers of the mouth are first discovered by dentists.

What are the symptoms of oral cancer?

The warning signs of oral cancer are as follows:
• A lump in the cheek that can be felt with the tongue
• Sore spot or ulceration of lips, tongue, or other area inside the mouth that does not heal in 2 weeks
• White scaly area inside the mouth
• Swelling of the lips, gums, or other area inside the mouth, with or without pain
• Repeated bleeding in the mouth with no apparent cause
• Numbness or loss of feeling in any part of the mouth

What is leukoplakia?

Leukoplakia is a fairly common condition among people who smoke. It is not cancerous, but it can become cancerous especially if it is continually irritated, as by smoking. It occurs as a white thickening or patches on the lip, on the tongue, or in the mouth. It replaces the normal, pink mucous membrane of the mouth. It may be flat or elevated and its edges may be sharply outlined or poorly defined. It may be found in one small area of the mouth or in several parts. Sometimes it is called smoker's tongue or smoker's patches. Poorly fitted dentures can also be irritating to leukoplakia. If you have this problem, it is important to have the dental defect taken care of.

Are the white patches usually removed?

It depends upon the extent of the patches. The patches may be removed with an electric needle, using local anesthesia. If there are many of them, you will need several treatments to take them all out. You can also have them removed surgically or with cryosurgery. They usually require either local or general anesthesia and an overnight stay in the hospital.

What is Plummer Vinson syndrome?

Plummer Vinson syndrome is a wasting away of mucous membranes of the mouth, pharynx, and esophagus caused by deficiencies in the diet. It is a noncancerous condition that tends to become malignant. It frequently precedes mouth cancer.

What is torus palatinus?

Torus palatinus is a bony growth in the middle of the hard palate in the roof of the mouth. It is a benign tumor which can grow to an inch or more in diameter. It grows slowly and you may not notice it. Unless you are having some problem with it, such as in fitting dentures, it is usually left alone. If necessary, it can be surgically removed. The operation can be done under local anesthesia. The membrane of the palate will be opened, the excess bone chiseled away, and the membrane stitched together.

Is bleeding in the mouth a sign of cancer?

Repeated bleeding of the mouth without cause is a sign of some kind of problem. If it has been going on for 2 weeks, you should have it checked by a doctor or a dentist. Most cases of bleeding in the mouth are not cancerous.

Can I examine myself for oral cancer?

Yes, it is possible for you to examine yourself for oral cancer. There are six areas of the mouth lips, cheeks, gums, tongue, roof, and floor which should be examined. A welllit mirror, a gauze pad or handkerchief, and clean hands are all that are needed.

• Check your lips, cheeks, and gums, looking for changes in the normal color. Look for areas of red, white, or blue. See if there are any scabs, cracks, ulcers, or areas of swelling or bleeding. You should feel for sore spots, numbness, bumps, or thickening within the tissues of your lips and cheeks. Feel your gums to see if there is any swelling, numbness, soreness, or a loose tooth.

• Look at your tongue. Stick it out as far as you can. Examine the tip, the top, the bottom, and edges. You are looking for white patches, velvety red spots, ulcers, or swelling. Feel the tongue to see if there are any lumps, sore spots, or lack of movement. Extend the tongue in all directions by grasping it with the gauze pad or handkerchief.

• Check both the floor and the roof of your mouth. Look for lumps, swellings, or soreness. Feel along the sides and as far back as you can go. Tilt your head back and look at the front and back of the roof of your mouth in the mirror. If you have any problems that last for more than 2 weeks, you should see your doctor or your dentist. Although these signs don't always mean cancer is present, they are warning signals.

Will habitual biting of the inside ofmy cheek cause cancer?

No one really knows. Regular irritation has been suspected as a possible cause of cancer. Maybe the dentist can help with suggestions for stopping this habit. Sometimes chewing gum can help. If there are white, red, or darkened patches inside the cheek, see the doctor.

How does the doctor diagnose cancer of the mouth?

The physician or dentist will first carefully examine your mouth. He will also compare both sides of your neck to find differences in its shape. Next he will feel the inside of the mouth and neck, paying special attention to any areas that did not seem normal on the outside. The lymph nodes in the front and back of the neck will be checked for swelling or changes in the way they feel. Mouth cancer, like most other cancer, needs to be biopsied for a definitive diagnosis. The doctor will take a piece of the suspicious area or take out the entire area. Sometimes a needle biopsy may be used for lumps in the neck. X-rays of the skull and chest, endoscopy and liver and bone scans may also be done.

How is cancer of the mouth treated?

Surgery and radiation are the principal methods for treating cancer of the mouth, depending on the site and stage of the disease. Sometimes radiation is used to shrink tumors of the cheek or floor of the mouth before surgery. Radioactive implants are also used in treating some mouth cancers; they may be implanted for cancer ofthe upper lip, tongue, cheek, or floor of the mouth. Sometimes external radiation is used before the radium implant. The use of chemotherapy together with radiation therapy is also being tested.

Early Signs of Oral Cancer - Oral Cancer Symptoms

Is radical neck dissection used for treating mouth cancer?

If involvement of lymph nodes in the neck is suspected, a radical neck dissection is sometimes performed.

Does plastic reconstructive surgery usually accompany an operation for mouth cancer?

It depends upon the extent of the surgery. Sometimes, to make sure all the malignant tissue is taken out, extensive surgery may be necessary. Although such procedures are sometimes disfiguring, highly developed techniques of reconstructive surgery can be used to rebuild or repair facial features or other affected areas. If a complete reconstructive procedure is not advisable at the time of cancer surgery, temporary artificial devices of a cosmetic nature can be used.


How is cancer of the nose and sinuses treated? Synptoms and Operation

What are the parts of the nose?

The nose is made up of connective tissue (cartilage) and bone. It contains two cavities, which are separated in the middle by a septum. The nose serves as the organ of smell and is the airway for breathing. It filters, warms, and moistens the air which is breathed in.

What are the sinuses?

The sinuses are air spaces within the bones of the face and the skull. They connect through small openings (ostia) into the air passages in the nose. The soft, moist mucous lining which coats the inside of the nose extends into the sinuses. There are four types of sinus: frontal (within the bone just above and behind the eyebrows), maxillary (in the bones of the cheeks beneath the eyes), ethmoid (near the side of the nose and inner part of the eyes and going back into the skull), and sphenoid (in the skull above the level of the nose).

Is cancer of the sinuses common?

No. Cancer of the sinuses is very rare. Most often it is the maxillary sinus that is involved in the disease.

What are the cancers of this area called?

The cancers in the nose area are called cancer of the nasal fossa (nasal cavity), paranasal sinuses (sinus), and nasopharynx (tube which connects the mouth and nose with the esophagus).

What are the symptoms of cancer of the nasal area?

One symptom is a reddish, easily bleeding mass in the nasal passage. Sometimes paranasal sinuses will produce pain and pressure in the cheek, a toothache, or persistent draining of the sinus after tooth extraction, a nasal quality to the voice, a lump in the cheek, or bloodstained discharge from the nose.

How is this tumor diagnosed?

The doctor uses a head light and a small mirror or a nasopharyngoscope (a flexible optical instrument) to look in the passages. He may also order x-rays of the facial bone. He can take a biopsy or a brush scraping with the nasopharyngoscope.

What is nasopharyngeal fibroma?

This is a tumor of the nasopharynx which is found mainly in youngsters. It is a benign tumor but may destroy bone and soft tissue about it as it enlarges. It should be diagnosed early. It is curable, but sometimes several operations are needed. Sometimes radium implant, radiation, or cryosurgery is used to remove these tumors.

 Are the tumors in the area of the nose and sinuses always malignant?

No. There are many noncancerous tumors in the area of the nose and the sinuses. Warts, polyps, and small blood vessel tumors are often found and are usually nonmalignant.

How is cancer of the nose and sinuses treated?

Surgery and radiation therapy are the treatments, depending on the site of the tumor and the extent of it. Sometimes sections of the nose, the roof of the mouth, the floor of the eye socket, or the face and the cheek must be excised. Radiation can be used before or after surgery.

Nasal and Sinus Cancer - What Is It? What are the Symptoms and Treatment? - Head and Neck Cancer

Why is such drastic surgery performed?

The main goal is to get beyond the cancer. Many lives have been saved with this kind of surgery, and the advances in plastic surgery mean that people can be restored to normal appearance.

How is cancer of the nasopharynx treated?

Cancer of the nasopharynx is usually treated with radiation therapy or with surgery or both, depending upon the extent of the disease.

What is cancer of the oropharynx : Diagnosed , Symptoms and Treatment

What is cancer of the oropharynx?

Cancer of the region of the oropharynx includes the soft palate, tonsil, walls of the pharynx, and back third of the tongue. The most common site for this cancer is on the tonsil.

Oropharyngeal epithelial cell carcinoma refers to cancer of the tonsils, the bottom and posterior third of the tongue, the taste bud , and therefore the posterior and lateral pharynx. epithelial cell carcinoma comprises quite 95% of oropharyngeal carcinoma. Tobacco and alcohol are important risk factors, but human papillomavirus (HPV) today causes most of those tumors. Symptoms include pharyngitis and painful and / or difficult swallowing. Treatment is with radiation, chemotherapy, or both, but primary surgery is becoming more common. The survival rate is far higher in HPV-positive patients.

As with most head and neck cancers, non-HPV-related oropharyngeal cancer is more common in older men with a mean age of 61 years. Tobacco and alcohol remain the main risk factors for oropharyngeal cancer. Patients who smoke quite 1.5 packs of cigarettes each day have an approximately 3-fold increased risk of cancer; and patients who drink 4 or more alcoholic beverages each day are at about 7 times the danger . people that both drink and smoke tons are 30 times more in danger of oropharyngeal cancer.

How is cancer of the oropharynx diagnosed?

The doctor will diagnose it by looking at it and feeling it if it is in an area that can be reached. In other areas he will use laryngoscopy. As with other cancers, biopsy is essential for a definite diagnosis.

What are the symptoms of cancer of the oropharynx?

The symptoms include a mild sore throat, lump in the back of the tongue and velvety red patches appear. Some are open sores. There is usually little or no pain associated with them. Some people complain of difficulty in swallowing, lumps in the neck, difficulty in breathing, and earaches.

Oropharyngeal Cancer - What Is It? What are the Symptoms and Treatment? - Head and Neck Cancer

What is the treatment for cancer of the oropharynx?

Primary treatment for this cancer is radiation therapy in most cases. Sometimes surgery is necessary a neck dissection may need to be done.

Cancer of the Hypopharynx: Early Symptoms, Treated, Metastasis and Detect Cancer

What is cancer of the hypopharynx?

Cancers of the hypopharynx are tumors of the lower pharynx. They are found mostly in males from the ages of 49 to 60.Hypopharyngeal carcinoma may be a malignant neoplasm within the area of the hypopharynx (lower pharynx). Hypopharyngeal carcinoma may be a sort of laryngeal carcinoma.

Alcohol abuse and nicotine abuse especially together favor the event of hypopharyngeal cancer. Furthermore, occupational exposure to metal dusts, coal and tar products, and asbestos cement are often carcinogenic. Poor oral hygiene, which results in a pathological composition of saliva, may be a risk factor.

Hypopharyngeal carcinomas are usually moderately differentiated epithelial cell carcinomas. Piriform sinus carcinomas often have a submucosal spread pattern and show only the "tip of the iceberg" in .

There are three clinical regions of the hypopharynx:

Piriform sinus (approx. 90%)
Posterior throat wall (approx. 5%)
Post-cricoid region (approx. 5%)

What are the early symptoms of cancer of the hypopharynx?

The symptoms include difficulty in swallowing, lumps in the neck, difficulty in breathing, earaches, cough, and bad breath.

Hypopharyngeal carcinoma results in mild dysphagia and aspiration. Furthermore, foreign body sensation, feeling of the world , also as stinging pain, often drawn to the ear, may occur when swallowing. If the carcinoma has spread to the arytenoid , hoarseness and dyspnea also occur. Hypersalivation also can occur. Possibly. bloody sputum occurs in advanced stages.

Since the metastasis occurs very early, the primary symptom is usually an enlargement of the lymph nodes behind and under the ear and at the angle of the jaw, which is typically one-sided and painless.

Direct laryngoscopy shows the tumor mass within the area of the dorsal wall of the hypopharynx. In advanced stages, the tumor has spread to the larynx, prevertebral fascia, and thyroid. Esophagoscopy should rather be performed with a rigid esophagoscope, since the piriform sinus and post-cricoid region can't be seen with a versatile endoscope. Biopsies are taken from different regions of the tumor.

Sonography, CT and / or MRI (of the neck, abdomen and thorax) are often wont to assess the tumor extent within the larynx and neck area, also as metastases more reliably. X-ray chest, PET and bone scintigraphy are helpful for the look for distant metastases.

A sole, organ-preserving partial resection of the hypopharynx is performed within the T1 stage and within the T2 stage, NO / N +. within the case of in depth tumors, partial hypopharyngeal resection is performed together with a laryngectomy, a neck dissection and an adjuvant radiation.

As an alternate to surgery , chemotherapy with a platinum-containing chemotherapeutic agent (e.g. cisplatin, carboplatin), also as 5-fluorouracil, bleomycin, mitomycin and methotrexate as polychemotherapy is employed , often together with radiation (radiochemotherapy) or adjuvant with a palliative objective.

In the event of inoperability, an effort is formed to scale back the dimensions of the tumor using the CO2 laser, simultaneous chemoradiation therapy or radiation alone.

End-stage gastrostomy and tracheotomy are often required.

The 5-year survival rate for T1 / T2 tumors is around 30%, for T3 tumors it's only 20%.

Hypopharyngeal & Laryngeal Cancer - What Is It? What are Symptoms & Treatment? - Head & Neck Cancer

How does the doctor detect cancer of the hypopharynx?

He looks at it and feels it if it is in an area that can be reached. He will probably use a nasopharyngeal mirror or a laryngoscope (flexible optical instruments which allow him to look into the lower pharynx). He will do a biopsy to get a final diagnosis.

How is cancer of the hypopharynx treated?

Radiation therapy is used sometimes alone, sometimes followed by surgery. Part of the pharynx and/or part of the larynx may be removed.

Salivary gland tumors: How to treat, symptoms and after operation.

Where are the salivary glands?

The major salivary glands are in the sides of the face, in front of and slightly below the ears. These salivary glands are also known as parotid glands. The saliva gets from these glands to the mouth through parotid ducts, which open on the inner surfaces of the cheeks. There is also a pair of glands in the lower jaws (submandibular glands) and under the tongue (sublingual glands). The ducts from these glands open into the floor of the mouth underneath the tongue.

Where are tumors of the salivary glands found?

Tumors of the salivary glands are most often found in the parotid glands. Most often these tumors are not malignant. They are either on the outer surface of the parotid gland, which is near the ear, or in the inner surface, which is in the mouth. Benign parotid gland tumors are usually painless and slow growing. Malignant tumors ofthe parotid tend to grow rapidly. Sometimes a tumor seems to be benign for many years and then suddenly becomes malignant. Tumors of the parotid gland are relatively rare. Of those tumors that are found, 80 percent are benign. If a person has a lump in the neck which does not quickly disappear, or which grows, he should go to a doctor. A second opinion by a doctor specializing in head and neck surgery should also be sought.

What are the symptoms of cancer in the parotid gland?

Usually the most common complaint is the presence of a slowly growing lump in the cheek next to the ear. Sometimes there is a rather dull and indefinite but progressive pain and facial-nerve paralysis.

How does the doctor operate on the salivary-gland tumors?

He makes an incision running from in front of the ear to the neck. The doctor must be sure the incision is long enough to let him carefully separate the gland from the facial nerve so that the nerve is not cut. If the nerve is cut, distortion and paralysis of that side of the face may occur. Sometimes, such as when the tumor is malignant, the nerve must be cut. In many cases the treatment for cancer of the salivary glands is removal of the complete gland, the affected area around it, and sometimes the facial nerve.

Is there a long recovery after an operation on the salivary glands?

The doctor will leave the drain in for a few days after the operation. You will probably be out of bed the day after that and home in a week or less. You may have to remain on a fluid diet for several days because it may be painful to chew solid foods, but after that you will have an unrestricted diet. Usually the scar heals in about 10 days, but you may experience some facial nerve paralysis which may last for several months.

Where are the incisions made in operations on the salivary glands?

The incision placement depends upon which glands the doctor is operating on. If it is a parotid gland operation, the incision is made in front of the ear and along the angle of the jaw. If it is the submaxillary gland, it is made parallel to and along the undersurface of the lower jaw. The incision for the sublingual gland is in the mouth or in the skin just below the chin.

Does the doctor take out the whole gland?

 Again it depends upon the gland and on the problem. Usually if cancer is present, the whole gland is taken out. If the parotid tumor is benign, and can be completely taken out, the rest of the gland will be left.

Is radiotherapy used in treating cancer of the salivary glands?

Sometimes radiation is used in this type of cancer. It may be given to persons who cannot be operated on or to reduce the size of the tumor. Sometimes it is used after the operation on a portion of the facial nerve.

Can the facial nerve be replaced?

Yes, it can. However, some return of facial nerve function has been seen in patients without a nerve graft. If the paralysis is due to the shock of the operation, the function usually returns within 6 to 8 weeks.

Will my hair be shaved for an operation on the parotid tumor?

Yes. Because of the location of the parotid gland, the hair around the ear must be shaved. Sometimes the hair is brushed up and back, if possible, or cut so that the top hair may be arranged to cover the ear when you are ready to go home.

Will I have to have special care after the operation?

You will probably be on a fluid diet for the first few days because it may be painful to chew solid foods. You may be given antibiotics in large doses to control infection. Special attention will be paid to your mouth and to your teeth.

Salivary Tumors: Pleomorphic Adenoma, Warthin Tumor and Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma

Does this kind of cancer usually recur?

Parotid tumors can recur. Sometimes they are treated with surgery again. The whole area may be treated with radiation.

If the doctor removes one of the salivary glands, will I still have normal saliva production?

Yes. The remaining glands will take over for the gland that the doctor has removed.

What kind of treatment is used in head and neck cancer?

Are cancers of the head and neck common?

Head and neck cancers constitute only about 5 percent of all cancers. They are not common cancers, especially in comparison with cancers of the breast, lung, or colon rectal areas. However, since they are difficult to manage and the team approach is most important in treating them, we discuss the major types of head and neck cancer in some detail in this blog.

Do cancers of the head and neck metastasize to other parts of the body?

Unlike many other types of tumor, tumors in the head and neck usually remain confined to that area. They do not tend to metastasize to distant parts of the body. However, they do tend to spread to lymph nodes in the area.

What kind of treatment is used in head and neck cancer?

As is true with most other types of cancer, treatment includes all three disciplines: surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Surgery is the treatment most often used. Usually early tumors are treated by surgery with adjoining tissue taken out. If the neck nodes are involved, a radical neck dissection may be done. Radiation therapy is used either before or after surgery. Sometimes chemotherapy is combined with immunotherapy in treating patients with head and neck cancer.

Is reconstructive surgery usually necessary for head and neck cancer?

It depends upon the kind of cancer, the extent of the tumor, and the kind of surgery which is performed. In many cases of cancer of the head and neck, reconstructive surgery is not necessary. However, where needed, skillful skin and bone grafting allows persons who have had radical surgery to return to as normal an appearance and function as possible.

Can a person develop head and neck cancer from smoking or chewing tobacco?

Cancer of the lip, tongue, mouth, and pharynx (the space behind the nose and mouth) do occur more often in people who smoke, chew tobacco, or use snuff. Snuff, particularly when used in the form of a pellet and held for long periods of time between the gum and the cheek, frequently causes irritation and may eventually produce cancer at the spot. Chewing tobacco has also been linked to the development of cancer of the mouth.

Are there any new treatments being tried for head and neck cancer?

There are several new treatments being tested, especially for large tumors of the head and neck region or tumors that have spread beyond the area. Chemotherapy, immunotherapy, a combination of the two treatments, chemotherapy used before surgery to shrink the tumor, chemotherapy and/ or radiotherapy after surgery, chemotherapy followed by radiation therapy are all being tried with some success. Radium implants are being used in the treatment of mouth cancer.

How will I know what exercises to do?

Don't do any exercises until your doctor or your physical therapist tells you to. You may need to be seen by a physical therapist, who will determine your condition and give you exercises which will help your particular case. He or she will show you how to do them and tell you how often they should be done. It is important to make sure you do these exercises regularly. If they are not done, you may find the shoulder on the operated side will fall forward and look lower than the one on the other side. And if the surgery was on both sides of the neck, you might find that both shoulders are falling forward and you will be standing and sitting in an uncomfortable, slumped over position which may cause shoulder pain.

Head and Neck Cancer (Risk Factors, Pathology, Clinical Picture, Diagnosis and Management)

Will I have trouble eating or swallowing after head and neck surgery?

You may have trouble in chewing, swallowing and speaking. You may also find your appearance has changed. Rehabilitation is a very important part of your treatment and may include plastic surgery.

Is it true that many patients with head and neck cancer get very depressed and discouraged?

Again, it depends upon the site of the cancer and the attitude of the patient. Many patients whose operation has caused facial disfigurement or a great change such as a laryngectomy naturally go through some depressed periods. However, when they find out that they can live their lives in much the same fashion as they did before with reconstructive surgery and help in learning to speak most head and neck patients find that life is still worth living. However, most people need support and help from family and friends to get through the difficult period of adjustment.

Are most tumors of the lip cancerous? Does lip cancer metastasize?

No, most tumors on the lips are benign. They are usually warty growths or tumors of the blood vessels. Most of these can be cured by one of several methods: cutting them out and stitching the cut edges together, burning them with an electric needle, freezing them, or treating them with x-ray.

Do benign lip tumors ever turn into cancer?

Sometimes. Warty growths have a tendency to become cancerous and should be removed.

Where does cancer of the lip occur most commonly?

Lip cancer usually occurs on the lower lip, in men between the ages of 60 and 70. Chapping, overexposure to sunburn, and smoking (especially pipe smoking) are thought to be factors in developing this cancer. Cancer of the lip is fairly common and usually highly curable, especially if there is no involvement with the lymph nodes in the neck.

How is lip cancer treated?

Sometimes surgery is used, usually a procedure called a V-lip excision. Sometimes radiation therapy is used, especially for larger cancers. Very large lip cancers are usually treated with radiation therapy because major reconstructive work would be necessary after surgery. Lip cancer, because it is slow growing and visible, is usually discovered in the early stages. It often takes lip cancer months to spread to the lymph nodes in the neck.

Will I have disfiguring scars after a partial removal of the lip?

The lip regains almost normal appearance, even after large sections of it have been taken out.

How is the reconstruction done if surgery is performed on a large lip cancer?

Usually the reconstruction is done with the use of a skin graft taken from the forehead.

Lip and Oral Cavity Cancers

What is a lip shave?

A lip shave removes the mucous membrane on the lip. It is usually performed as a preventive measure for persons who have extensive leukoplakia (white patches) on the lower lip even if the patches are not cancerous.

Is neck dissection done with lip cancer?

If the biopsy shows that the lymph nodes are involved, a neck dissection may be performed on the involved side!

Does lip cancer metastasize?

Lip cancer rarely metastasizes. When it does, it goes to the lymph nodes in the region. However, swollen lymph nodes can be an inflammatory reaction to lip surgery.

Head and neck cancer most common early symptoms

What are the most common symptoms of head and neck cancer?

The most common early symptoms differ depending upon the site. A small ulcer in the mouth is one symptom. It may first appear somewhere on the tongue, around the tonsils, or along the edges of the upper and lower gums. It may look like a cold sore. It is usually painless and unlike a cold sore it does not heal by itself. Difficulty in swallowing, continued hoarseness, a sore throat that persists, neck swelling, and a lump on the side of the neck are all early symptoms which, if they last for more than 2 weeks, should be checked by a doctor.
Cancers of the head and neck are those that affect any part of the oral cavity: lip, tongue, mouth, ear, and throat, as well as the sinuses and sometimes muscles in the neck and upper back. Reconstructive surgery is a recent blessing for those who have cancers in any of these areas, for defects in the various facial structures such as eyes, ears, nose, mouth, lips, cheek and neck can be minimized by the plastic surgeon. Since cancers of the head and neck are quite rare, and the problems individualized, it is crucial that, if there is to be extensive surgery, treatment be sought at a center where there is a well integrated team of maxillofacial specialists who can deliver the best possible techniques, management, and knowledge. Thyroid cancer is a highly curable form of cancer. It affects women more commonly than men and the majority of cases occur between the ages of 25 and 65. Treatment depends on cell type and stage of disease. Cancer of the larnyx can be cured if it is found early. One of the most common early symptoms is hoarseness that lasts for more than three weeks. Cancer of the esophagus is a treatable and sometimes curable cancer. It is relatively rare and is seen more often in black than in white men. It is usually treated by radiation alone or combined with surgery, with surgery and chemotherapy or with chemotherapy alone.

Head & Neck Cancer Warning Signs

Questions to Ask Your Doctor Before Agreeing to Any Treatment


• Who will be performing surgery?
• Where will the incision be and what will the scar look like?
• How disfiguring will the surgerv be?
• What will I look like?
• Will I still be able to eat, talk, and swallow after the surgery?
• Can radiation or radium implant be used instead of the surgery?
• Will radiation or chemotherapy be used in addition to the surgery?
• What kind of reconstructive surgery can be done?
• How many operations will that entail?
• What are the effects?
• How long will it all take?
• Will it cure me?
• How expensive will it be?
• Who else will be on the treatment team?
• Can I talk with them before I have any operation?
• How many patients with head and neck cancer are you treating?

What kind of doctor should I see if I have symptoms of head and neck cancer?

The doctors who usually specialize in the treatment of head and neck cancer include otolaryngologists (EXT doctors who treat ear, nose, and throat, air tubes to the lung, and neck regions), plastic surgeons (who do operations involving skin grafts, facial injuries, and tendon and nerve repair), and some general surgeons. Depending upon the type of cancer, the oral surgeon, maxillofacial prosthodontist (who specializes in replacing lost facial features), speech therapist, radiotherapist, and medical oncologist are ideally part of the team.

Can I go to my local doctor for the treatment of head and neck cancer?

The treatment of head and neck cancer often requires a team approach. It is important that your treatment not be decided on by an individual specialist because the diagnosis, evaluation of the extent of the disease, choice of primary treatment, and effective rehabilitation require special talents that cross over conventional lines. There are several doctors who have special interest and training in the management of head and neck cancer problems the general surgeon, otorhinolaryngologist, plastic surgeon, oral surgeon, radiotherapist, and oncologist. The total care requires collaboration among these specialists as well as with the neurosurgeon, prosthodontist, speech therapist, and other allied health personnel.

Is the National Cancer Institute supporting any studies on head and neck cancer?

Yes. There are many clinical cooperative group studies being conducted by the National Cancer Institute on head and neck tumors. A variety of different trials, most of them involving radiation therapy or chemotherapy, either alone or in combination and either with or without surgery, as well as immunotherapy and neutron radiotherapy, are in progress.

What is head and neck cancer?

Cancer of the head and neck is a catchall phrase for an assortment of cancers which occur above the collarbone. It usually includes cancer in the ears, salivary glands, eye, upper airway and food passages, nose, paranasal sinuses, nasopharynx, lips, oral cavity, tongue, tonsils, pharynx, hypopharynx, larynx and cervical esophagus, neck, and thyroid and parathyroid glands.

What are the most common sites of head and neck cancer?

The most common sites of head and neck cancer (excluding the skin) are in the mouth (oral cavity), pharynx (throat), larynx (voice box), thyroid, and sinuses.


Cancer of the Penis: Usual Treatment, symptoms, metastasis and sexual problems

Does cancer of the penis ever occur? 

Cancer of the penis is quite rare. It usually occurs on the tip of the penis and is almost exclusively found in uncircumcised males between the ages of 50 and 70. In others, cancer of the penis is found to be a metastasis from the bladder, prostate, lung, pancreas, kidney, testicle, or ureter.

What symptoms should alert a man to the possibility of cancer of the penis? 

A pimple or sore, small nodule, white thickened patches, raised, velvety patch, wart or ulcer especially a painless ulcer are all suspicious symptoms. Bleeding associated with erection or intercourse, persistent abnormal erection without sexual desire, foul smelling discharge, or a lump in the groin should all be carefully investigated.

What is the usual treatment for cancer of the penis? 

The usual treatment is surgery. Approximately 90 percent of patients with cancer of the penis, if it is found in the early stages, will be cured through the surgical removal of the tumor. If the cancer has spread to the groin, nodes in the groin will usually be removed. Chemotherapy and radiation therapy are also used in some cases.

What sexual problems can I expect as a result of surgery on the penis? 

It depends on the extent of the surgery. If only part of the penis has been removed, you may still be able to achieve erection and have the ability to perform penile vaginal intercourse to the point of ejaculation. You may also be able to achieve orgasm and ejaculation by stimulation of the remaining part of your penis through masturbation or by your partner's manual or oral stimulation.

How can I have an active sex life if I am unable to have intercourse? 

Your sex life will probably not be the same as before, but there are ways for you to have an active sex life and sexual enjoyment.

• Many men continue to be good lovers by using their hands or mouth to stimulate their partners.

• You may still be able to ejaculate with a non erect penis or may learn to experience orgasms in other ways.

• There are several prosthetic devices which can be inserted surgically in the penis to make intercourse possible.

How do prosthetic devices for the penis work? 

There are several kinds of penile prostheses that may be implanted in the penis to make intercourse possible. The device is placed inside the corpora cavernosa, two structures within the penis resembling long balloons that normally fill with blood during an erection. The prosthetic devices are either inflatable or semi rigid. There are advantages and disadvantages to each type of prosthesis, which you will want to discuss with your doctor and your partner. The inflatable prosthesis gives a natural looking appearance. A pump placed in the scrotum allows the man to transfer fluid from a reservoir which is placed in the abdomen to two inflatable balloons that go in the penis. There are tubings from the pump to the reservoir and to the two inflatable balloons. When deflation is desired, he presses a valve on the side of the pump to release the fluid back into the reservoir. This type of prosthesis requires an extensive operation and, because it is mechanically complicated, some 40 to 50 percent of patients need to have it repaired at some time. Correction of problems require another operation. Another type of prosthesis is a semi-rigid device made of silicone. Although it is easier to insert and hardly ever malfunctions, it is less satisfactory because once it is inserted, the penis remains in the erect position. The penis can be placed either up against the abdominal wall, into the groin crease, or bent along the leg. A third type is the rubber rod prosthesis, which has more positions than the semi-rigid prosthesis and can be manually rotated. Your doctor will be able to advise you where you can get information about penile prostheses and may also be able to help you contact others who have had the operation.

Testis and Penile Cancer Symptoms and Treatment

What is the treatment for a metastasis that appears on the penis? 

The treatment in this case would usually involve surgical removal of the tumor followed by radiation to relieve the pain which this type of metastasis usually causes.

Testicular Cancer:Diagnosis,symptoms,types,treatments and all questions

How is testicular cancer usually discovered?

Most testicular cancers are discovered by patients themselves, by accident or by practicing a simple exam known as TSE or testicular self examination. TSE is usually done once a month, during or soon after a warm bath or shower. While standing, the man gently rolls one testicle between his thumb and fingers, checking for lumps, swelling or other changes.

The process is repeated for the other testicle. Is testicular cancer a common type of cancer?

No, it is not. Testicular cancer actually accounts for only 1 percent of all cancer in males and about 3 percent of cancer of the male urogenital organs. However, in the age group where it occurs in white men from 20 to 34 it is the most common cancer, accounting for 22 percent of all cancers for this age group. It is also the second most common cancer in men from ages 35 to 39 and the third most common from 15 to 19. Thanks to treatment advances in the last 10 years, testicular cancer is considered a highly curable cancer. Young men whose brothers or fathers had testicular cancer are more likely to have it.

Is testicular cancer more common in those who have undescended testicles?

Yes. In the male fetus, the testes are formed farther up in the body, near the kidneys, and, in normal development, descend to the scrotum shortly after birth. If they never make this descent or descend after the age of 6, the chances of testicular cancer developing in later years is forty times more likely than if they properly enter the scrotum.

What are the symptoms of testicular cancer?

The first sign is usually a small, hard lump, about the size of a pea or a slight enlargement or change in the consistency of the testes. There may be a dull ache in the lower abdomen and groin, accompanied by a sensation of dragging or heaviness. If the tumor is growing rapidly and hemorrhage is present, there may be sharp testicular pain. Enlargement of the breast or tenderness of the nipples may also be noticed.

How is cancer of the testicle diagnosed?

First, infection and other diseases are ruled out by physical examination and medical tests. Because most tumors in the testes are cancerous rather than non cancerous, the standard procedure for a suspicious lump in the scrotum is surgical removal of the entire affected testicle. This is done through an incision in the groin. The operation is necessary to get the diagnosis. However, it also prevents further growth of the tumor and, if done at an early stage, may stop the spread of the cancer to other parts of the body. A biopsy is not performed for testicular cancer because it would need to cut through the fibrous outer capsule of the testis and could contribute to the spread of cancer cells.

Are there different kinds of testicular cancer?

Yes. Actually, there are many different kinds, but they are generally placed in two broad types of germ cell cancers: seminomas and nonseminomas. Seminomas account for 40 percent of all testicular germ cell cancers.

Are different treatments recommended for the different types of testicular cancer?

Yes. Surgery the removal of the suspected testicle is usually the first step. Treatment ofthe affected lymph nodes varies according to the type of cells found in the tumor.

Can I go to my local doctor for treatment of testicular cancer?

Since this is a rare form of cancer, the patient with suspected testicular cancer would be well advised to seek out a urologist specializing in cancer in one of the large medical centers to be certain that he receives the optimal treatment for this disease. Close cooperation and exchange of information among surgeon, radiotherapist, and medical oncologist is a must to ensure the successful outcome ofthis type of cancer.

Is a biopsy usually done before a testicle is removed?

No. This is one of the cases where the usual simple biopsy is not used for diagnosis. Doctors are warned against using needle aspiration or cutting into the tumor. In most cases, the doctor will schedule you for an operation to remove the testicle. Further therapy is based on results of a permanent section biopsy not on a frozen section examination.

Are any blood tests used in testicular cancer?

Two serum markers blood proteins that often become elevated in cancer patients have greatly helped in staging testicular cancers, monitoring how well the treatment is working, and detecting early relapse. The markers are AFP (alpha fetoprotein) and HCG (the beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin). The markers are measured before and after surgery to help determine if any cancer cells remain.

Does removal of one testicle affect potency or fertility?

No, providing the remaining testicle is normal.

After removal of a testicle (orchiectomy) and x-ray therapy, is it still possible for a man to father a child?

If the radiation can be calculated to pinpoint the specific site without damaging surrounding tissues or organs, it may be possible to avoid sterility. Sperm can also be frozen and stored in a sperm bank for later use in case the patient does become sterile. Be sure to thoroughly discuss with your doctor before treatment the entire question of fertility, radiation, and sperm storage.

What is the role of chemotherapy in testicular cancer which has metastasized?

Chemotherapy was first found potentially curative for testicular cancer in the late 1950s. Many trials and protocols have been tested in the past 30 years and it is important that your doctor be aware of the latest treatments being used. Several drugs have been found to be effective, and some patients with metastatic testicular cancer can now be cured with combination chemotherapy. The treatment is difficult, however, and requires an experienced medical oncologist to administer it.

Why are the abdominal lymph nodes removed in testicular cancer?

Surgery to remove the abdominal lymph nodes may be necessary in some patients in order to stage the disease accurately. Since cancer of the testicle spreads first to the retroperitoneal lymph nodes (the nodes deep in the abdomen below the diaphragm), this surgery may also help control the disease by taking out any nodes which are involved.

What kind of follow up therapy is needed after treatment for testicular cancer?

Testicular cancer patients need continuing medical followup, including regular x-rays with CT scans of the lungs and abdomen and monthly checks of serum marker levels for one to two years. After that, checkups are scheduled once or twice a year. If there is evidence that some cancer remains or that the cancer has spread or recurred, maintenance chemotherapy may also be necessary.

Is testicular cancer usually curable?

Today, cancer of the testicle is considered a highly treatable, usually curable cancer. The outlook for patients, of course, varies depending upon the extent of the disease when diagnosed, the tumor cell type, and the growth rate.

Do operations performed when cancer is found in the testicle have an effect on sexual ability or fertility?

Treatment for testicular cancer, if the cancer is localized in the testicle and is found to be of the seminoma type, usually requires that the testicle and the other surrounding glandular structures be removed. If cells other than seminoma cells are found, more extensive surgery is required to help prevent spread ofthe cancer into the lymph nodes that drain fluids from the pelvic area. A gel filled implant, which has the weight, shape and texture of a normal testicle can be inserted surgically, either at the time of the original operation or later, to restore normal appearance. Since cancer of the testicle rarely involves more than one testicle, erection is usually still possible. There may be a decrease in ejaculate, but the remaining testicle should produce enough sperm for a man to be able to father children.

What technique can be used to increase fertility for men who have had testicular surgery?

This surgery may cause a decrease in ejaculation because nerves are cut during surgery and may result in infertility. However, there is a chance you may still have the ability to father children, even though you may be producing less semen. A study by a German doctor, since confirmed by patients at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center Hospital in New York City, shows that some men who wish to father children may be able to raise their sperm counts by having intercourse on a full bladder, standing up, if possible, to force the fluid to be deposited properly.

Testicular Cancer Animation 

How can I make arrangements to store my sperm so that I can father children if I become sterile because of my operation or radiation?

It may be possible for sperm to be frozen and stored in a sperm bank for later use in case you become sterile. However, many men with testicular cancer are ineligible for sperm banking because their sperm production may be impaired as a result of the disease itself. It is important to discuss with your doctor before treatment the entire question of sterility, radiation, and sperm storage.

How do sperm banks work?

Sperm banks usually provide indefinite storage of sperm for cancer patients, pre vasectomy patients, and others. Usually, enough semen is collected and frozen to provide an adequate amount to be used for a 6-month period. An analysis of the semen is done to assess the quality and assure that it can be banked satisfactorily. Usually, the first sample is used to assess the quality, then a 48-hour trial freezing is done and the quality is tested again. In order to ensure an adequate amount of semen, the patient is asked to come to the lab with a semen sample every 48 hours for several weeks, until enough semen has been provided. It is essential that the specimen be delivered within a half hour after ejaculation to ensure potency. The patient is asked to sign a consent form to allow the sperm to be stored. Sperm banks are available in various areas in the United States. Your doctor or the Cancer Information Service (1-800-4- CANCER) can provide you with a listing of the locations.

Testicular Cancer: Signs, Symptoms and Self-Exams

Does chemotherapy for testicular cancer affect fertility?

While some types of chemotherapy can cause impaired fertility, a recent study showed that fertility can return in some patients 2 to 3 years after treatment.

What is the effect of radiation of lymph nodes on fertility and sexual function in testicular cancer?

Radiation therapy of the lymph nodes, with proper shielding of the normal testicle, and proper shielding of other organs, usually does not affect fertility or sexual function.

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